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Daniel Kahn Gillmor 838e3feaa9 prepare debian release 1 month ago
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scd scd: Make app_genkey and supporting ISO function more flexible. 4 months ago
sm sm: In --gen-key with "key from card" show also the algorithm. 4 months ago
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ChangeLog-2011 Added release date of older versions to NEWS. 4 years ago speedo: Include Windows patch for gpgme 1.12.0 7 months ago
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README Release 2.2.13 4 months ago
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autogen.rc build: Update 1 year ago build: Update 1 year ago Release 2.2.13 4 months ago


                       The GNU Privacy Guard 2
Version 2.2

Copyright 1997-2019 Werner Koch
Copyright 1998-2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.


GnuPG is a complete and free implementation of the OpenPGP standard
as defined by RFC4880 (also known as PGP). GnuPG enables encryption
and signing of data and communication, and features a versatile key
management system as well as access modules for public key

GnuPG, also known as GPG, is a command line tool with features for
easy integration with other applications. A wealth of frontend
applications and libraries are available that make use of GnuPG.
Starting with version 2 GnuPG provides support for S/MIME and Secure
Shell in addition to OpenPGP.

GnuPG is Free Software (meaning that it respects your freedom). It
can be freely used, modified and distributed under the terms of the
GNU General Public License.

Note that the 2.0 series of GnuPG reached end-of-life on 2017-12-31.
It is not possible to install a 2.2.x version along with any 2.0.x


GnuPG 2.2 depends on the following GnuPG related packages:

npth (
libgpg-error (
libgcrypt (
libksba (
libassuan (

You should get the latest versions of course, the GnuPG configure
script complains if a version is not sufficient.

For some advanced features several other libraries are required.
The configure script prints diagnostic messages if one of these
libraries is not available and a feature will not be available..

You also need the Pinentry package for most functions of GnuPG;
however it is not a build requirement. Pinentry is available at .

After building and installing the above packages in the order as
given above, you may continue with GnuPG installation (you may also
just try to build GnuPG to see whether your already installed
versions are sufficient).

As with all packages, you just have to do

make check
make install

The "make check" is optional but highly recommended. To run even
more tests you may add "--enable-all-tests" to the configure run.
Before running the "make install" you might need to become root.

If everything succeeds, you have a working GnuPG with support for
OpenPGP, S/MIME, ssh-agent, and smartcards. Note that there is no
binary gpg but a gpg2 so that this package won't conflict with a
GnuPG 1.4 installation. gpg2 behaves just like gpg.

In case of problem please ask on the mailing
list for advise.

Instruction on how to build for Windows can be found in the file
doc/HACKING in the section "How to build an installer for Windows".
This requires some experience as developer.

Note that the PKITS tests are always skipped unless you copy the
PKITS test data file into the tests/pkits directory. There is no
need to run these test and some of them may even fail because the
test scripts are not yet complete.

You may run

gpgconf --list-dirs

to view the default directories used by GnuPG.

To quickly build all required software without installing it, the
Speedo method may be used:

make -f build-aux/ native

This method downloads all required libraries and does a native build
of GnuPG to PLAY/inst/. GNU make is required and you need to set
LD_LIBRARY_PATH to $(pwd)/PLAY/inst/lib to test the binaries.

** Specific build problems on some machines:

*** Apple OSX 10.x using XCode

On some versions the correct location of a header file can't be
detected by configure. To fix that you should run configure like

./configure gl_cv_absolute_stdint_h=/usr/include/stdint.h

Add other options as needed.

*** Systems without a full C99 compiler

If you run into problems with your compiler complaining about dns.c
you may use

./configure --disable-libdns

Add other options as needed.

* MIGRATION from 1.4 or 2.0 to 2.2

The major change in 2.2 is gpg-agent taking care of the OpenPGP
secret keys (those managed by GPG). The former file "secring.gpg"
will not be used anymore. Newly generated keys are stored in the
agent's key store directory "~/.gnupg/private-keys-v1.d/". The
first time gpg needs a secret key it checks whether a "secring.gpg"
exists and copies them to the new store. The old secring.gpg is
kept for use by older versions of gpg.

Note that gpg-agent now uses a fixed socket. All tools will start
the gpg-agent as needed. The formerly used environment variable
GPG_AGENT_INFO is ignored by 2.2. The SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment
variable should be set to a fixed value.

The Dirmngr is now part of GnuPG proper and also used to access
OpenPGP keyservers. The directory layout of Dirmngr changed to make
use of the GnuPG directories. Dirmngr is started by gpg or gpgsm as
needed. There is no more need to install a separate Dirmngr package.

All changes introduced with GnuPG 2.2 have been developed in the 2.1
series of releases. See the respective entries in the file NEWS.


** Socket directory

GnuPG uses Unix domain sockets to connect its components (on Windows
an emulation of these sockets is used). Depending on the type of
the file system, it is sometimes not possible to use the GnuPG home
directory (i.e. ~/.gnupg) as the location for the sockets. To solve
this problem GnuPG prefers the use of a per-user directory below the
the /run (or /var/run) hierarchy for the the sockets. It is thus
suggested to create per-user directories on system or session
startup. For example the following snippet can be used in
/etc/rc.local to create these directories:

[ ! -d /run/user ] && mkdir /run/user
awk -F: </etc/passwd '$3 >= 1000 && $3 < 65000 {print $3}' \
| ( while read uid rest; do
if [ ! -d "/run/user/$uid" ]; then
mkdir /run/user/$uid
chown $uid /run/user/$uid
chmod 700 /run/user/$uid
done )


The complete documentation is in the texinfo manual named
`'. Run "info gnupg" to read it. If you want a a
printable copy of the manual, change to the "doc" directory and
enter "make pdf" For a HTML version enter "make html" and point your
browser to gnupg.html/index.html. Standard man pages for all
components are provided as well. An online version of the manual is
available at [[]] . A
version of the manual pertaining to the current development snapshot
is at [[]] .

* Installing GnuPG 2.2. and GnuPG 1.4

GnuPG 2.2 is a current version of GnuPG with state of the art
security design and many more features. To install both versions
alongside, it is suggested to rename the 1.4 version of "gpg" to
"gpg1" as well as the corresponding man page. Newer releases of the
1.4 branch will likely do this by default. In case this is not
possible, the 2.2 version can be installed under the name "gpg2"
using the configure option --enable-gpg-is-gpg2.


A description of new features and changes since version 2.1 can be
found in the file "doc/whats-new-in-2.1.txt" and online at
"" .

The primary WWW page is ""
or using Tor "http://ic6au7wa3f6naxjq.onion"
The primary FTP site is ""

See [[]] for a list of
mirrors and use them if possible. You may also find GnuPG mirrored
on some of the regular GNU mirrors.

We have some mailing lists dedicated to GnuPG: For important announcements like new
versions and such stuff. This is a
moderated list and has very low traffic.
Do not post to this list. For general user discussion and
help (English). German speaking counterpart of
gnupg-users. Russian speaking counterpart of
gnupg-users. GnuPG developers main forum.

You subscribe to one of the list by sending mail with a subject of
"subscribe" to, where x is the name of the
mailing list (gnupg-announce, gnupg-users, etc.). See for archives
of the mailing lists.

Please direct bug reports to [[]] or post them
direct to the mailing list <>.

Please direct questions about GnuPG to the users mailing list or one
of the PGP newsgroups; please do not direct questions to one of the
authors directly as we are busy working on improvements and bug
fixes. The English and German mailing lists are watched by the
authors and we try to answer questions when time allows us.

Commercial grade support for GnuPG is available; for a listing of
offers see . Maintaining and
improving GnuPG requires a lot of time. Since 2001, g10 Code GmbH,
a German company owned and headed by GnuPG's principal author Werner
Koch, is bearing the majority of these costs. To keep GnuPG in a
healthy state, they need your support.

Please consider to donate at .

# This file is Free Software; as a special exception the authors gives
# unlimited permission to copy and/or distribute it, with or without
# modifications, as long as this notice is preserved. For conditions
# of the whole package, please see the file COPYING. This file is
# distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
# WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law; without even the implied
# Local Variables:
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