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README-no-toc.md

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# PCBA
# PCBA
PCB Assembly. Soldering. SMT. Thru hole. Stencils. Paste. Equipment. Tools. HOWTOs.
# Prototype PCBA Manufacturing
This documents free software and open source hardware manufacturing
of PCBAs (Printed Circuit Board Assemblies).

178
README.md

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#Summary
- [PCBA](#section-id-1)
- [Prototype PCBA Manufacturing](#section-id-5)
- [Software](#section-id-12)
- [Debian](#section-id-16)
- [Other Software](#section-id-50)
- [Electronic Design Automation (EDA)](#section-id-69)
- [PCB Manufacturing](#section-id-73)
- [Board Types and Features](#section-id-85)
- [Copper Layer](#section-id-88)
- [Soldermask](#section-id-91)
- [Silkscreen](#section-id-94)
- [Standards & QC](#section-id-97)
- [PCB Assembly](#section-id-104)
- [Placement](#section-id-115)
- [Solder Paste](#section-id-130)
- [Solder Wire](#section-id-139)
- [Flux](#section-id-146)
- [Flux Remover](#section-id-151)
- [Low Melt Alloy](#section-id-158)
- [Solder Wick](#section-id-163)
- [Heat](#section-id-168)
- [PCBA Processes](#section-id-181)
- [Solder through hole components with soldering iron](#section-id-184)
- [Solder SMT components with soldering iron](#section-id-187)
- [Solder SMT components with hot air](#section-id-190)
- [Solder SMT components with oven](#section-id-193)
- [Solder SMT components with skillet](#section-id-196)
- [Solder BGA components](#section-id-199)
- [Rework through hole components](#section-id-202)
- [Rework SMT components](#section-id-210)
- [Rework BGA components](#section-id-218)
- [Create solder paste stencil](#section-id-221)
- [Apply solder paste with solder paste mask](#section-id-229)
- [Apply solder paste with syringe](#section-id-232)
- [Apply solder paste with electronic syringe](#section-id-235)
- [Solder Pot](#section-id-238)
- [PCBA Testing](#section-id-244)
- [Equipment](#section-id-247)
- [LASER](#section-id-252)
- [CNC](#section-id-263)
- [3D Printer](#section-id-273)
- [Solder Station](#section-id-283)
- [Pick and Place](#section-id-310)
- [Production Boards](#section-id-320)
- [Copying / License](#section-id-329)
- [Software](#section-id-11)
- [Debian](#section-id-15)
- [Other Software](#section-id-49)
- [Electronic Design Automation (EDA)](#section-id-68)
- [PCB Manufacturing](#section-id-72)
- [Board Types and Features](#section-id-84)
- [Copper Layer](#section-id-87)
- [Soldermask](#section-id-90)
- [Silkscreen](#section-id-93)
- [Standards & QC](#section-id-96)
- [PCB Assembly](#section-id-103)
- [Placement](#section-id-114)
- [Solder Paste](#section-id-129)
- [Solder Wire](#section-id-138)
- [Flux](#section-id-145)
- [Flux Remover](#section-id-150)
- [Low Melt Alloy](#section-id-157)
- [Solder Wick](#section-id-162)
- [Heat](#section-id-167)
- [PCBA Processes](#section-id-180)
- [Solder through hole components with soldering iron](#section-id-183)
- [Solder SMT components with soldering iron](#section-id-186)
- [Solder SMT components with hot air](#section-id-189)
- [Solder SMT components with oven](#section-id-192)
- [Solder SMT components with skillet](#section-id-195)
- [Solder BGA components](#section-id-198)
- [Rework through hole components](#section-id-201)
- [Rework SMT components](#section-id-209)
- [Rework BGA components](#section-id-217)
- [Create solder paste stencil](#section-id-220)
- [Apply solder paste with solder paste mask](#section-id-228)
- [Apply solder paste with syringe](#section-id-231)
- [Apply solder paste with electronic syringe](#section-id-234)
- [Solder Pot](#section-id-237)
- [PCBA Testing](#section-id-243)
- [Equipment](#section-id-246)
- [LASER](#section-id-251)
- [CNC](#section-id-262)
- [3D Printer](#section-id-272)
- [Solder Station](#section-id-282)
- [Pick and Place](#section-id-309)
- [Production Boards](#section-id-319)
- [Copying / License](#section-id-328)
<div id='section-id-1'/>
# PCBA
# PCBA
PCB Assembly. Soldering. SMT. Thru hole. Stencils. Paste. Equipment. Tools. HOWTOs.
<div id='section-id-5'/>
# Prototype PCBA Manufacturing
This documents free software and open source hardware manufacturing
of PCBAs (Printed Circuit Board Assemblies).
Focus is particularly on tools that can be used with hackerspace-
level technology.
<div id='section-id-12'/>
<div id='section-id-11'/>
# Software
Various Free Software (as defined by FSF) applications available
for the creation of PCBAs.
<div id='section-id-16'/>
<div id='section-id-15'/>
## Debian
The below packages are in Debian Buster. Note, even though it is in
@ -105,7 +101,7 @@ The following Debian packages are NOT in use:
* `visolate` - tool for engraving PCBs using CNCs.
<div id='section-id-50'/>
<div id='section-id-49'/>
## Other Software
Other PCBA software available under Free Software licenses.
@ -126,13 +122,13 @@ https://github.com/openscopeproject/InteractiveHtmlBom
* [`flatcam`](http://flatcam.org/) --- Free and Open-source PCB CAM.
FlatCAM lets you take your designs to a CNC router. You can open Gerber, Excellon or G-code, edit it or create from scatch, and output G-Code. Isolation routing is one of many tasks that FlatCAM is perfect for.
<div id='section-id-69'/>
<div id='section-id-68'/>
## Electronic Design Automation (EDA)
To design PCBs, KiCAD is used.
Export Gerber files for manufacturing.
<div id='section-id-73'/>
<div id='section-id-72'/>
# PCB Manufacturing
You can make your own PCB or have them made by numerous suppliers.
@ -146,27 +142,27 @@ Recommended suppliers (amongst many):
* Many others that also support KiCAD!
<div id='section-id-85'/>
<div id='section-id-84'/>
## Board Types and Features
FR1, FR4, etc.
<div id='section-id-88'/>
<div id='section-id-87'/>
## Copper Layer
Cu later.
<div id='section-id-91'/>
<div id='section-id-90'/>
## Soldermask
Green...
<div id='section-id-94'/>
<div id='section-id-93'/>
## Silkscreen
White...
<div id='section-id-97'/>
<div id='section-id-96'/>
## Standards & QC
Standards:
@ -175,7 +171,7 @@ Standards:
* cf. NASA Standards.
<div id='section-id-104'/>
<div id='section-id-103'/>
# PCB Assembly
You can have a board assembled by a house such as ProtoExpress,
@ -188,7 +184,7 @@ DIY approaches to this. This you have the PCB finished. You need to:
* Solder Components.
<div id='section-id-115'/>
<div id='section-id-114'/>
## Placement
The many ways to place a part...
@ -205,7 +201,7 @@ What method is used depends on the type and size of the part
and what equipment is available. We'll be working with SMT,
BGA, and through hole parts.
<div id='section-id-130'/>
<div id='section-id-129'/>
## Solder Paste
To solder SMT parts to PCB.
@ -216,7 +212,7 @@ In use:
* Zeph ZeroLead, 96.5Sn / 3Ag /.5Cu, 10cc syringe.
<div id='section-id-139'/>
<div id='section-id-138'/>
## Solder Wire
In use:
@ -225,14 +221,14 @@ In use:
* Kester Sn96.5Ag3.0Cu0.5, no clean, no lead, 0.8mm.
<div id='section-id-146'/>
<div id='section-id-145'/>
## Flux
In use:
* Zephlux No Clean Flux, 14 gr. jar.
<div id='section-id-151'/>
<div id='section-id-150'/>
## Flux Remover
But you just put flux on...
@ -241,21 +237,21 @@ In use:
* Zeph Flux Remover.
<div id='section-id-158'/>
<div id='section-id-157'/>
## Low Melt Alloy
To desolder, perchance.
* Zeph ZERO No Lead Low Melt.
<div id='section-id-163'/>
<div id='section-id-162'/>
## Solder Wick
Solder wick, aka desoldering wire.
In use: variety sizes.
<div id='section-id-168'/>
<div id='section-id-167'/>
## Heat
You need to melt that solder...
@ -270,42 +266,42 @@ You need to melt that solder...
* Hot air bath.
<div id='section-id-181'/>
<div id='section-id-180'/>
# PCBA Processes
Working with PCBs and components:
<div id='section-id-184'/>
<div id='section-id-183'/>
## Solder through hole components with soldering iron
HOWTO solder through hole components to a PCB with soldering.
<div id='section-id-187'/>
<div id='section-id-186'/>
## Solder SMT components with soldering iron
HOWTO Solder SMT components with soldering iron.
<div id='section-id-190'/>
<div id='section-id-189'/>
## Solder SMT components with hot air
HOWTO Solder SMT components with hot air.
<div id='section-id-193'/>
<div id='section-id-192'/>
## Solder SMT components with oven
HOWTO Solder SMT components with oven.
<div id='section-id-196'/>
<div id='section-id-195'/>
## Solder SMT components with skillet
HOWTO Solder SMT components with skillet.
<div id='section-id-199'/>
<div id='section-id-198'/>
## Solder BGA components
HOWTO Solder BGA components.
<div id='section-id-202'/>
<div id='section-id-201'/>
## Rework through hole components
HOWTO Rework through hole components.
@ -315,7 +311,7 @@ Current Practice:
* [Through Hole Component Removal HOWTO]
(HOWTO/through-hole-component-removal-HOWTO.md)
<div id='section-id-210'/>
<div id='section-id-209'/>
## Rework SMT components
HOWTO Rework SMT components.
@ -325,12 +321,12 @@ Current Practice:
* [SMT Component Removal HOWTO]
(HOWTO/smt-component-removal-HOWTO.md)
<div id='section-id-218'/>
<div id='section-id-217'/>
## Rework BGA components
HOWTO Rework BGA components.
<div id='section-id-221'/>
<div id='section-id-220'/>
## Create solder paste stencil
HOWTO Create solder paste stencil.
@ -340,22 +336,22 @@ Current Practice:
* [HOWTO create a solder paste stencil with Inkscape]
(HOWTO/laser-solder-paste-stencil-inkscape.md)
<div id='section-id-229'/>
<div id='section-id-228'/>
## Apply solder paste with solder paste mask
HOWTO Apply solder paste with solder paste mask.
<div id='section-id-232'/>
<div id='section-id-231'/>
## Apply solder paste with syringe
HOWTO Apply solder paste with syringe.
<div id='section-id-235'/>
<div id='section-id-234'/>
## Apply solder paste with electronic syringe
HOWTO Apply solder paste with electronic syringe.
<div id='section-id-238'/>
<div id='section-id-237'/>
## Solder Pot
HOWTO Use a solder pot.
@ -363,19 +359,19 @@ HOWTO Use a solder pot.
* [Solder Pot HOWTO]
(HOWTO/solder-pot-HOWTO.md)
<div id='section-id-244'/>
<div id='section-id-243'/>
# PCBA Testing
Pins.
<div id='section-id-247'/>
<div id='section-id-246'/>
# Equipment
The equipment considered is what is generally available to
hackerspaces. This leaves out industrial gear like large
wave solder machines.
<div id='section-id-252'/>
<div id='section-id-251'/>
## LASER
LASERS can serve a few purposes in manufacturing PCBAs.
@ -388,7 +384,7 @@ Inexpensive LASERs can be retrofit to RepRap 3D printers.
* Board marking, such as serialization.
<div id='section-id-263'/>
<div id='section-id-262'/>
## CNC
Large CNCs are overkill for PCBA assembly.
@ -400,7 +396,7 @@ CNCs can be used to:
* Drill PCB holes.
<div id='section-id-273'/>
<div id='section-id-272'/>
## 3D Printer
RepRap 3D printers are available at many hackerspaces.
@ -412,7 +408,7 @@ RepRap 3D printers are available at many hackerspaces.
* Make other tools, etc.
<div id='section-id-283'/>
<div id='section-id-282'/>
## Solder Station
Solder station tools:
@ -441,7 +437,7 @@ Solder station tools:
* Solder pot.
<div id='section-id-310'/>
<div id='section-id-309'/>
## Pick and Place
A variety of free software compatible and open source hardware
@ -453,7 +449,7 @@ pick and place machines are available.
non-commercial design licensed hardware. Manufacturer supplies
proprietary application.
<div id='section-id-320'/>
<div id='section-id-319'/>
# Production Boards
Boards manufactured or slated to be manufactured.
@ -464,7 +460,7 @@ https://code.forksand.com/forksand/fs-TrellisBoard
* ULX3X --- ECP5 board.
https://code.forksand.com/forksand/fs-ulx3s
<div id='section-id-329'/>
<div id='section-id-328'/>
# Copying / License
This document is available here:

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