You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.
Thomas Lamprecht e073493cb3 bump version to 6.0-2 2 weeks ago
PVE improve CSRF compat with older PVE 2 weeks ago
debian bump version to 6.0-2 2 weeks ago
test replace read_password with param_mapping 1 year ago
.gitignore create correct man page and .pod 7 years ago
Makefile buildsys: switch upload dist over to buster 1 month ago
README rename VM.Copy to VM.Clone 6 years ago
oathkeygen don't import 'RFC' from MIME::Base32 3 years ago
pveum make read_password a CLIHandler class method 3 years ago
user.cfg.ex iimported from svn 'pve-access-control/trunk' 8 years ago

README

User Management and Access Control
==================================

Proxmox VE implements an easy but flexible way to manage users. A
powerful Access Control algorithm is used to grant permissions to
individual users or group of users.

Best Practices:

Use groups in ACLs (not individual users).

User Authentication
===================

Proxmox VE can use different authentication servers. Those
servers are listed in '/etc/pve/priv/domain.cfg', indexed by a unique
ID (called 'authentication domain' or 'realm').

User names need to be unique. We create unique names by adding the
'realm' to the user ID: <userid>@<realm>

File format 'domain.cfg'
----example domains.cfg ------------------

# an active directory server
AD: mycompany
server1 10.10.10.1
server2 10.10.10.2
...

# an LDAP server
LDAP: example.com
server1 10.10.10.2
....

------------------------------------------

There are 2 special authentication domains name 'pve' and 'pam':

* pve: stores paswords to "/etc/pve/priv/shadow.cfg" (SHA256 crypt);

* pam: use unix 'pam'


Proposed user database fields:
==============================

users:

login_name: email address (user@domain)
enable: 1 = TRUE, 0 = FALSE
expire: <integer> (account expiration date)
domid: reference to authentication domain
firstname: user first name
lastname: user last name
email: user's email address
comment: arbitrary comment

special user root: The root user has full administrative privileges

group:

group_name: the name of the group
user_list: list of login names
comment: a more verbose description

pool:

pool_name: the name of the pool
comment: a more verbose description
vm_list: list of VMs associated with the pool
storage_list: list of storage IDs associated with the pool

privileges:

defines rights required to execute actions or read
information.

VM.Allocate: create/remove new VM to server inventory
VM.Migrate: migrate VM to alternate server on cluster
VM.PowerMgmt: power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, ...)
VM.Console: console access to VM
VM.Monitor: access to VM monitor (kvm)
VM.Backup: backup/restore VMs
VM.Clone: Clone VM or VM template
VM.Audit: view VM config

VM.Config.XXX: modify VM config

VM.Config.Disk: add/modify/delete Disks
VM.Config.CDROM: eject/change CDROM
VM.Config.CPU: modify CPU settings
VM.Config.Memory: modify Memory settings
VM.Config.Network: add/modify/delete Network devices
VM.Config.HWType: modify emulated HW type
VM.Config.Options: modify any other VM configuration

Pool.Allocate: create/remove/modify a pool.

Datastore.Allocate: create/remove/modify a data store.
Datastore.AllocateSpace: allocate space on a datastore
Datastore.AllocateTemplate: allocate/upload templates and iso images
Datastore.Audit: view/browse a datastore

Permissions.Modify: modify access permissions

Sys.PowerMgmt: Node power management (start, stop, reset, shutdown, ...)
Sys.Console: console access to Node
Sys.Syslog: view Syslog
Sys.Audit: view node status/config


We may need to refine those in future - the following privs
are just examples:

VM.Create: create new VM to server inventory
VM.Remove: remove VM from inventory
VM.AddNewDisk: add new disk to VM
VM.AddExistingDisk: add an existing disk to VM
VM.DiskModify: modify disk space for associated VM
VM.UseRawDevice: associate a raw device with VM
VM.PowerOn: power on VM
VM.PowerOff: power off VM
VM.CpuModify: modify number of CPUs associated with VM
VM.CpuCyclesModify: modify CPU cycles for VM
VM.NetworkAdd: add network device to VM
VM.NetworkConfigure: configure network device associated with VM
VM.NetworkRemove: remove network device from VM

Network.AssignNetwork: assign system networks

role:

defines a sets of priviledges

predefined roles:

administrator: full administrative privileges
read_only: read only
no_access: no privileges

We store the following attribute for roles:

role_name: the name of the group
description: a more verbose description
privileges: list of privileges

permission:

Assign roles to users or groups.


ACL and Objects:
================

An access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. The list specifies who or what is allowed to access the object and what operations are allowed to be performed on the object.

Object: A Virtual machine, Network (bridge, venet), Hosts, Host Memory, Storage, ...

We can identify our objects by an unique (file system like) path, which also defines a tree like hierarchy relation. ACL can be inherited. Permissions are inherited if the propagate flag is set on the parent. Child permissions always overwrite inherited permissions. User permission takes precedence over all group permissions. If multiple group permission apply the resulting role is the union of all those group priviledges.

There is at most one object permission per user or group

We store the following attributes for ACLs:

propagate: propagate permissions down in the hierarchy
path: path to uniquely identify the object
user_or_group: ID of user or group (group ID start with @)
role: list of role IDs.

User Database:

To keep it simple, we suggest to use a single text file, which is replicated to all cluster nodes.

Also, we can store ACLs inside this file.

Here is a short example how such file could look like:

-----User/Group/Role Database example--------

user:joe@example.com:$1$nd91DtDy$mJtzWJAN2AAABKij0JgMy1/:Joe Average:Just a comment:
user:max@example.com:$1$nd91DtDy$LANSNJAN2AAABKidhfgMy3/:Max Mustermann:Another comment:
user:edward@example.com:$1$nd91DtDy$LANSNAAAAAAABKidhfgMy3/:Edward Example:Example VM Manager:

group:admin:Internal Administrator Group:root:
group:audit:Read only accounts used for audit::
group:customers:Our Customers:joe@example.com,max@example.com:

role:vm_user:Virtual Machine User:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console:
role:vm_manager:Virtual Machine Manager:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console,VM.AddNewDisk,VM.PowerOn,VM.PowerOff:
role:vm_operator:Virtual Machine Operator:VM.Create,VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console,VM.AddNewDisk,VM.PowerOn,VM.PowerOff:
role:ds_consumer:DataStore Consumer:Datastore.AllocateSpace:
role:nw_consumer:Network Consumer:Network.AssignNetwork:

# group admin can do anything
acl:0:/:@admin:Administrator:
# group audit can view anything
acl:1:/:@audit:read_only:

# user max can manage all qemu/kvm machines
acl:1:/vm/qemu:max@example.com:vm_manager:

# user joe can use openvz vm 230
acl:1:/vm/openvz/230:joe@example.com:vm_user:

# user Edward can create openvz VMs using vmbr0 and store0
acl:1:/vm/openvz:edward@example.com:vm_operator:
acl:1:/network/vmbr0:edward@example.com:ds_consumer:
acl:1:/storage/store0:edward@example.com:nw_consumer:

---------------------------------------------

Basic model RBAC -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Role-based_access_control

# Subject: A person or automated agent
subject:joe@example.com:
subject:max@example.com:

# Role: Job function or title which defines an authority level
role:vm_user:Virtual Machine User:
role:admin:Administrator:

# Subject Assignment: Subject -> Role(s)
SA:vm_user:joe@example.com,max@example.com:
SA:admin:joe@example.com:

# Permissions: An approval of a mode of access to a resource
# Permission Assignment: Role -> Permissions (set of allowed operation)
perm:vm_user:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console:
perm:admin:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console,VM.Create:

---------------------------------------------

We can merge 'perm' into the 'role' table, because it is
a 1 -> 1 mapping

subject:joe@example.com:
subject:max@example.com:

role:vm_user:Virtual Machine User:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console:
role:admin:Administrator:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console,VM.Create:

SA:vm_user:joe@example.com,max@example.com:
SA:admin:joe@example.com:

-----------------------------------------------

We can have different subject assignment for different objects.

subject:joe@example.com:
subject:max@example.com:

role:vm_user:Virtual Machine User:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console:
role:admin:Administrator:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console,VM.Create:

# joe is 'admin' for openvz VMs, but 'vm_user' for qemu VMs
SA:/vm/openvz:admin:joe@example.com:
SA:/vm/qemu:vm_user:joe@example.com,max@example.com:

-----------------------------------------------

Let us use more convenient names.
Use 'user' instead of 'subject'.
Use 'acl' instead of 'SA'.

user:joe@example.com:
user:max@example.com:

role:vm_user:Virtual Machine User:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console:
role:admin:Administrator:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console,VM.Create:

# joe is 'admin' for openvz VMs, but 'vm_user' for qemu VMs
acl:/vm/openvz:admin:joe@example.com:
acl:/vm/qemu:vm_user:joe@example.com,max@example.com:

-----------------------------------------------

Finally introduce groups to group users. ACL can then
use 'users' or 'groups'.

user:joe@example.com:
user:max@example.com:

group:customers:Our Customers:joe@example.com,max@example.com:

role:vm_user:Virtual Machine User:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console:
role:admin:Administrator:VM.ConfigureCD,VM.Console,VM.Create:

acl:/vm/openvz:admin:joe@example.com:
acl:/vm/qemu:vm_user:@customers:


-----------------------------------------------