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  1. GNU Free Documentation License
  2. ==============================
  3. Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
  4. Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation,
  5. Inc. <>
  6. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
  7. license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  8. .0. PREAMBLE
  9. The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
  10. functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
  11. assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
  12. with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
  13. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
  14. to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
  15. for modifications made by others.
  16. This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
  17. works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
  18. complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
  19. license designed for free software.
  20. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
  21. software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
  22. program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
  23. software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
  24. it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
  25. whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
  26. principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
  28. This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
  29. contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
  30. distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
  31. world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
  32. work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,
  33. refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
  34. licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you
  35. copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
  36. under copyright law.
  37. A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
  38. Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
  39. modifications and/or translated into another language.
  40. A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
  41. the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
  42. publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
  43. subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
  44. directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in
  45. part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
  46. any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
  47. connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
  48. commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
  49. them.
  50. The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
  51. are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
  52. that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
  53. section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
  54. allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
  55. Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
  56. Sections then there are none.
  57. The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
  58. as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
  59. the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
  60. be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
  61. A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
  62. represented in a format whose specification is available to the
  63. general public, that is suitable for revising the document
  64. straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
  65. pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
  66. drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
  67. for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
  68. to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
  69. format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
  70. or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
  71. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
  72. of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
  73. Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
  74. ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
  75. or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
  76. HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of
  77. transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
  78. include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
  79. proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
  80. processing tools are not generally available, and the
  81. machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
  82. processors for output purposes only.
  83. The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
  84. plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
  85. this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
  86. formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
  87. the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
  88. preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
  89. The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of
  90. the Document to the public.
  91. A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
  92. title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
  93. text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
  94. specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
  95. "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"
  96. of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
  97. section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
  98. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
  99. states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
  100. Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
  101. License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
  102. implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
  103. no effect on the meaning of this License.
  105. You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
  106. commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
  107. copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
  108. to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no
  109. other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
  110. technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
  111. copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
  112. compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
  113. number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
  114. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
  115. you may publicly display copies.
  117. If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
  118. printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
  119. Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
  120. copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
  121. Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
  122. the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
  123. you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
  124. the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
  125. visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
  126. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
  127. the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
  128. as verbatim copying in other respects.
  129. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
  130. legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
  131. reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
  132. pages.
  133. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
  134. more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
  135. copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
  136. a computer-network location from which the general network-using
  137. public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
  138. a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
  139. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
  140. when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
  141. that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
  142. location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
  143. Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
  144. edition to the public.
  145. It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
  146. Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
  147. give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
  148. Document.
  150. You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
  151. the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
  152. the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
  153. Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
  154. and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
  155. of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
  156. A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
  157. from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
  158. (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
  159. of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
  160. if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
  161. B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
  162. responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
  163. Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
  164. Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
  165. unless they release you from this requirement.
  166. C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
  167. Modified Version, as the publisher.
  168. D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
  169. E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
  170. adjacent to the other copyright notices.
  171. F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
  172. giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
  173. terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
  174. G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
  175. and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
  176. H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
  177. I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
  178. to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
  179. publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
  180. there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
  181. stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
  182. given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
  183. Version as stated in the previous sentence.
  184. J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
  185. public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
  186. the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
  187. it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
  188. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
  189. least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
  190. publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
  191. K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
  192. Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
  193. the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
  194. and/or dedications given therein.
  195. L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
  196. unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
  197. or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
  198. M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
  199. may not be included in the Modified Version.
  200. N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
  201. or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
  202. O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
  203. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
  204. appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
  205. copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
  206. of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
  207. list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
  208. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
  209. You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
  210. nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
  211. parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
  212. been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
  213. standard.
  214. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
  215. passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
  216. of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
  217. Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
  218. through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
  219. includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
  220. by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
  221. you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
  222. permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
  223. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
  224. give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
  225. imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
  227. You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
  228. License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
  229. versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
  230. Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
  231. list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
  232. license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
  233. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
  234. multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
  235. copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
  236. different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
  237. adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
  238. author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
  239. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
  240. Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
  241. In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
  242. in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
  243. "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
  244. and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
  245. Entitled "Endorsements".
  247. You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
  248. documents released under this License, and replace the individual
  249. copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
  250. that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules
  251. of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
  252. other respects.
  253. You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
  254. distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
  255. copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
  256. License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
  257. document.
  259. A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
  260. and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
  261. distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
  262. resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
  263. of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
  264. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
  265. apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
  266. derivative works of the Document.
  267. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
  268. copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
  269. the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
  270. covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
  271. electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
  272. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
  273. aggregate.
  274. .8. TRANSLATION
  275. Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
  276. distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
  277. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
  278. permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
  279. translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
  280. original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
  281. translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
  282. Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
  283. the original English version of this License and the original versions
  284. of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
  285. the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
  286. or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
  287. If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
  288. "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
  289. its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
  290. title.
  291. .9. TERMINATION
  292. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
  293. except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
  294. otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and
  295. will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
  296. However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license
  297. from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally,
  298. unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally
  299. terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder
  300. fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to
  301. 60 days after the cessation.
  302. Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
  303. reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
  304. violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
  305. received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
  306. copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
  307. your receipt of the notice.
  308. Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
  309. licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
  310. this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
  311. reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does
  312. not give you any rights to use it.
  314. The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
  315. GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions
  316. will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
  317. detail to address new problems or concerns. See
  319. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
  320. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
  321. License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
  322. following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
  323. of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
  324. Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
  325. number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
  326. as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document
  327. specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this
  328. License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a
  329. version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the
  330. Document.
  331. .11. RELICENSING
  332. "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
  333. World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
  334. provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A
  335. public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A
  336. "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site
  337. means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
  338. "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
  339. license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
  340. corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
  341. California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
  342. published by that same organization.
  343. "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in
  344. part, as part of another Document.
  345. An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
  346. License, and if all works that were first published under this License
  347. somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or
  348. in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and
  349. (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
  350. The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site
  351. under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009,
  352. provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.