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  1. Installing Proxmox VE
  2. =====================
  3. ifndef::manvolnum[]
  4. :pve-toplevel:
  5. endif::manvolnum[]
  6. ifdef::wiki[]
  7. :title: Installation
  8. endif::wiki[]
  9. {pve} is based on Debian, therefore the disk image (ISO file) provided
  10. by us includes a complete Debian system ("buster" for version 6.x) as
  11. well as all necessary {pve} packages.
  12. Using the installer will guide you through the setup, allowing
  13. you to partition the local disk(s), apply basic system configurations
  14. (e.g. timezone, language, network) and install all required packages.
  15. Using the provided ISO will get you started in just a few minutes,
  16. that's why we recommend this method for new and existing users.
  17. Alternatively, {pve} can be installed on top of an existing Debian
  18. system. This option is only recommended for advanced users since
  19. detailed knowledge about {pve} is necessary.
  20. ifndef::wiki[]
  21. include::pve-system-requirements.adoc[]
  22. endif::wiki[]
  23. Using the {pve} Installer
  24. -------------------------
  25. You can download the ISO from {website}en/downloads.
  26. It includes the following:
  27. * Complete operating system (Debian Linux, 64-bit)
  28. * The {pve} installer, which partitions the local disk(s) with ext4,
  29. ext3, xfs or ZFS and installs the operating system.
  30. * {pve} kernel (Linux) with LXC and KVM support
  31. * Complete toolset for administering virtual machines, containers and
  32. all necessary resources
  33. * Web based management interface for using the toolset
  34. NOTE: During the installation process, the complete server
  35. is used by default and all existing data is removed.
  36. Please insert the installation media (e.g. USB stick, CD-ROM) and boot
  37. from it.
  38. [thumbnail="screenshot/pve-grub-menu.png"]
  39. After choosing the correct entry (e.g. Boot from USB) the {pve} menu
  40. will be displayed, you can now select one of the following options:
  41. Install Proxmox VE::
  42. Start normal installation.
  43. TIP: It is possible to only use the keyboard to progress through the
  44. installation wizard. Buttons can be pressed by pressing down the `ALT`
  45. key, combined with the underlined character from the respective Button.
  46. For example, `ALT + N` to press a `Next` button.
  47. Install Proxmox VE (Debug mode)::
  48. Start installation in debug mode. It opens a shell console at several
  49. installation steps, so that you can debug things if something goes
  50. wrong. Please press `CTRL-D` to exit those debug consoles and continue
  51. installation. This option is mostly for developers and not meant for
  52. general use.
  53. Rescue Boot::
  54. This option allows you to boot an existing installation. It searches
  55. all attached hard disks and, if it finds an existing installation,
  56. boots directly into that disk using the existing Linux kernel. This
  57. can be useful if there are problems with the boot block (grub), or the
  58. BIOS is unable to read the boot block from the disk.
  59. Test Memory::
  60. Runs `memtest86+`. This is useful to check if your memory is
  61. functional and error free.
  62. [thumbnail="screenshot/pve-select-target-disk.png"]
  63. You normally select *Install Proxmox VE* to start the installation.
  64. After that you get prompted to select the target hard disk(s). The
  65. `Options` button lets you select the target file system, which
  66. defaults to `ext4`. The installer uses LVM if you select `ext3`,
  67. `ext4` or `xfs` as file system, and offers additional option to
  68. restrict LVM space (see <<advanced_lvm_options,below>>)
  69. You can also use ZFS as file system. ZFS supports several software RAID
  70. levels, so this is specially useful if you do not have a hardware RAID
  71. controller. The `Options` button lets you select the ZFS RAID level, and
  72. you can choose disks there. Additionally you can set additional options (see
  73. <<advanced_zfs_options,below>>).
  74. [thumbnail="screenshot/pve-select-location.png", float="left"]
  75. The next page just asks for basic configuration options like your
  76. location, the time zone and keyboard layout. The location is used to
  77. select a download server near you to speed up updates. The installer is
  78. usually able to auto detect those settings, so you only need to change
  79. them in rare situations when auto detection fails, or when you want to
  80. use some special keyboard layout not commonly used in your country.
  81. [thumbnail="screenshot/pve-set-password.png"]
  82. You then need to specify an email address and the superuser (root)
  83. password. The password must have at least 5 characters, but we highly
  84. recommend to use stronger passwords - here are some guidelines:
  85. - Use a minimum password length of 12 to 14 characters.
  86. - Include lowercase and uppercase alphabetic characters, numbers and symbols.
  87. - Avoid character repetition, keyboard patterns, dictionary words,
  88. letter or number sequences, usernames, relative or pet names,
  89. romantic links (current or past) and biographical information (e.g.,
  90. ID numbers, ancestors' names or dates).
  91. It is sometimes necessary to send notifications to the system
  92. administrator, for example:
  93. - Information about available package updates.
  94. - Error messages from periodic CRON jobs.
  95. [thumbnail="screenshot/pve-setup-network.png"]
  96. All those notification mails will be sent to the specified email
  97. address.
  98. The last step is the network configuration. Please note that you can
  99. use either IPv4 or IPv6 here, but not both. If you want to configure a
  100. dual stack node, you can easily do that after installation.
  101. [thumbnail="screenshot/pve-installation.png", float="left"]
  102. If you press `Next` now, you will see an overview of your entered
  103. configuration. Please re-check every setting, you can still use the
  104. `Previous` button to go back and edit all settings here.
  105. If you press `Install` now, installation starts to format disks, and
  106. copies packages to the target. Please wait until that is finished,
  107. then remove the installation media and restart your system.
  108. [thumbnail="screenshot/pve-install-summary.png"]
  109. If the installation failed check out specific errors on the second TTY
  110. (`CTRL + ALT + F2'), ensure your systems mets the
  111. xref:install_minimal_requirements[minimum requirements]. If the installation
  112. is still not working then look at our xref:getting_help[how to get help chapter].
  113. Further configuration can be done via the Proxmox web interface. Just
  114. point your browser to the IP address given during installation
  115. (https://youripaddress:8006).
  116. NOTE: Default login is "root" (realm 'PAM') and the root password was
  117. defined during the installation process.
  118. [[advanced_lvm_options]]
  119. Advanced LVM Configuration Options
  120. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  121. The installer creates a Volume Group (VG) called `pve`, and additional
  122. Logical Volumes (LVs) called `root`, `data` and `swap`. The size of
  123. those volumes can be controlled with:
  124. `hdsize`::
  125. Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free
  126. space on the HD for further partitioning (i.e. for an additional PV
  127. and VG on the same hard disk that can be used for LVM storage).
  128. `swapsize`::
  129. Defines the size of the `swap` volume. The default is the size of the
  130. installed memory, minimum 4 GB and maximum 8 GB. The resulting value cannot
  131. be greater than `hdsize/8`.
  132. +
  133. NOTE: If set to `0`, no `swap` volume will be created.
  134. `maxroot`::
  135. Defines the maximum size of the `root` volume, which stores the operation
  136. system. The maximum limit of the `root` volume size is `hdsize/4`.
  137. `maxvz`::
  138. Defines the maximum size of the `data` volume. The actual size of the `data`
  139. volume is:
  140. +
  141. `datasize = hdsize - rootsize - swapsize - minfree`
  142. +
  143. Where `datasize` cannot be bigger than `maxvz`.
  144. +
  145. NOTE: In case of LVM thin, the `data` pool will only be created if `datasize`
  146. is bigger than 4GB.
  147. +
  148. NOTE: If set to `0`, no `data` volume will be created and the storage
  149. configuration will be adapted accordingly.
  150. `minfree`::
  151. Defines the amount of free space left in LVM volume group `pve`.
  152. With more than 128GB storage available the default is 16GB, else `hdsize/8`
  153. will be used.
  154. +
  155. NOTE: LVM requires free space in the VG for snapshot creation (not
  156. required for lvmthin snapshots).
  157. [[advanced_zfs_options]]
  158. Advanced ZFS Configuration Options
  159. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  160. The installer creates a ZFS pool `rpool`. When selecting ZFS, no swap space is
  161. created by default. You can leave some unpartitioned space for swap or create
  162. a swap zvol after installation, though the latter can lead to problems
  163. (see <<zfs_swap,ZFS swap notes>>).
  164. `ashift`::
  165. Defines the `ashift` value for the created pool. The `ashift` needs
  166. to be set at least to the sector-size of the underlying disks (2 to
  167. the power of `ashift` is the sector-size), or any disk,
  168. which might be put in the pool (e.g. during replacing a defective disk).
  169. `compress`::
  170. Defines whether compression is enabled for `rpool`.
  171. `checksum`::
  172. Defines which checksumming algorithm should be used for `rpool`.
  173. `copies`::
  174. Defines the `copies` parameter for `rpool`. Check the `zfs(8)` manpage for the
  175. semantics, and why this does not replace redundancy on disk-level.
  176. `hdsize`::
  177. Defines the total HD size to be used. This way you can save free
  178. space on the HD(s) for further partitioning (e.g. for creating a swap-partition).
  179. `hdsize` is only honored for bootable disks, i.e., only the first disk or
  180. mirror for RAID0, RAID1 or RAID10, and all disks in RAID-Z[123].
  181. ZFS Performance Tips
  182. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  183. ZFS uses a lot of memory, so it is best to add additional RAM if you
  184. want to use ZFS. A good calculation is 4GB plus 1GB RAM for each TB
  185. RAW disk space.
  186. ZFS also provides the feature to use a fast SSD drive as write cache. The
  187. write cache is called the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL). You can add that after
  188. installation using the following command:
  189. zpool add <pool-name> log </dev/path_to_fast_ssd>
  190. ifdef::wiki[]
  191. link:/wiki/Install_from_USB_Stick[Install from USB Stick]
  192. ---------------------------------------------------------
  193. link:/wiki/Install_Proxmox_VE_on_Debian_Stretch[Install Proxmox VE on Debian Stretch]
  194. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  195. endif::wiki[]
  196. ifndef::wiki[]
  197. include::pve-usbstick.adoc[]
  198. Install {pve} on Debian
  199. -----------------------
  200. {pve} ships as a set of Debian packages, so you can install it
  201. on top of a standard Debian installation.
  202. xref:sysadmin_package_repositories[After configuring the repositories], you
  203. need to run:
  204. [source,bash]
  205. ----
  206. apt-get update
  207. apt-get install proxmox-ve
  208. ----
  209. Installing on top of an existing Debian installation looks easy, but
  210. it presumes that you have correctly installed the base system, and you
  211. know how you want to configure and use the local storage. Network
  212. configuration is also completely up to you.
  213. In general, this is not trivial, especially when you use LVM or
  214. ZFS.
  215. You can find a detailed step by step how-to guide on the
  216. {webwiki-url}Install_Proxmox_VE_on_Debian_Stretch[wiki].
  217. endif::wiki[]
  218. ifdef::wiki[]
  219. Video Tutorials
  220. ---------------
  221. * List of all official tutorials on our
  222.[Proxmox VE YouTube Channel]
  223. * Tutorials in Spanish language on
  225. YouTube Play List]
  226. See Also
  227. --------
  228. * link:/wiki/System_Requirements[System Requirements]
  229. * link:/wiki/Package_Repositories[Package Repositories]
  230. * link:/wiki/Host_System_Administration[Host System Administration]
  231. * link:/wiki/Network_Configuration[Network Configuration]
  232. * link:/wiki/Installation:_Tips_and_Tricks[Installation: Tips and Tricks]
  233. endif::wiki[]