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qemu-options.hx 189KB

  1. HXCOMM Use DEFHEADING() to define headings in both help text and texi
  2. HXCOMM Text between STEXI and ETEXI are copied to texi version and
  3. HXCOMM discarded from C version
  4. HXCOMM DEF(option, HAS_ARG/0, opt_enum, opt_help, arch_mask) is used to
  5. HXCOMM construct option structures, enums and help message for specified
  6. HXCOMM architectures.
  7. HXCOMM HXCOMM can be used for comments, discarded from both texi and C
  8. DEFHEADING(Standard options:)
  9. STEXI
  10. @table @option
  11. ETEXI
  12. DEF("help", 0, QEMU_OPTION_h,
  13. "-h or -help display this help and exit\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  14. STEXI
  15. @item -h
  16. @findex -h
  17. Display help and exit
  18. ETEXI
  19. DEF("version", 0, QEMU_OPTION_version,
  20. "-version display version information and exit\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  21. STEXI
  22. @item -version
  23. @findex -version
  24. Display version information and exit
  25. ETEXI
  26. DEF("machine", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_machine, \
  27. "-machine [type=]name[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  28. " selects emulated machine ('-machine help' for list)\n"
  29. " property accel=accel1[:accel2[:...]] selects accelerator\n"
  30. " supported accelerators are kvm, xen, hax, hvf, whpx or tcg (default: tcg)\n"
  31. " kernel_irqchip=on|off|split controls accelerated irqchip support (default=off)\n"
  32. " vmport=on|off|auto controls emulation of vmport (default: auto)\n"
  33. " kvm_shadow_mem=size of KVM shadow MMU in bytes\n"
  34. " dump-guest-core=on|off include guest memory in a core dump (default=on)\n"
  35. " mem-merge=on|off controls memory merge support (default: on)\n"
  36. " igd-passthru=on|off controls IGD GFX passthrough support (default=off)\n"
  37. " aes-key-wrap=on|off controls support for AES key wrapping (default=on)\n"
  38. " dea-key-wrap=on|off controls support for DEA key wrapping (default=on)\n"
  39. " suppress-vmdesc=on|off disables self-describing migration (default=off)\n"
  40. " nvdimm=on|off controls NVDIMM support (default=off)\n"
  41. " enforce-config-section=on|off enforce configuration section migration (default=off)\n"
  42. " memory-encryption=@var{} memory encryption object to use (default=none)\n",
  44. STEXI
  45. @item -machine [type=]@var{name}[,prop=@var{value}[,...]]
  46. @findex -machine
  47. Select the emulated machine by @var{name}. Use @code{-machine help} to list
  48. available machines.
  49. For architectures which aim to support live migration compatibility
  50. across releases, each release will introduce a new versioned machine
  51. type. For example, the 2.8.0 release introduced machine types
  52. ``pc-i440fx-2.8'' and ``pc-q35-2.8'' for the x86_64/i686 architectures.
  53. To allow live migration of guests from QEMU version 2.8.0, to QEMU
  54. version 2.9.0, the 2.9.0 version must support the ``pc-i440fx-2.8''
  55. and ``pc-q35-2.8'' machines too. To allow users live migrating VMs
  56. to skip multiple intermediate releases when upgrading, new releases
  57. of QEMU will support machine types from many previous versions.
  58. Supported machine properties are:
  59. @table @option
  60. @item accel=@var{accels1}[:@var{accels2}[:...]]
  61. This is used to enable an accelerator. Depending on the target architecture,
  62. kvm, xen, hax, hvf, whpx or tcg can be available. By default, tcg is used. If there is
  63. more than one accelerator specified, the next one is used if the previous one
  64. fails to initialize.
  65. @item kernel_irqchip=on|off
  66. Controls in-kernel irqchip support for the chosen accelerator when available.
  67. @item gfx_passthru=on|off
  68. Enables IGD GFX passthrough support for the chosen machine when available.
  69. @item vmport=on|off|auto
  70. Enables emulation of VMWare IO port, for vmmouse etc. auto says to select the
  71. value based on accel. For accel=xen the default is off otherwise the default
  72. is on.
  73. @item kvm_shadow_mem=size
  74. Defines the size of the KVM shadow MMU.
  75. @item dump-guest-core=on|off
  76. Include guest memory in a core dump. The default is on.
  77. @item mem-merge=on|off
  78. Enables or disables memory merge support. This feature, when supported by
  79. the host, de-duplicates identical memory pages among VMs instances
  80. (enabled by default).
  81. @item aes-key-wrap=on|off
  82. Enables or disables AES key wrapping support on s390-ccw hosts. This feature
  83. controls whether AES wrapping keys will be created to allow
  84. execution of AES cryptographic functions. The default is on.
  85. @item dea-key-wrap=on|off
  86. Enables or disables DEA key wrapping support on s390-ccw hosts. This feature
  87. controls whether DEA wrapping keys will be created to allow
  88. execution of DEA cryptographic functions. The default is on.
  89. @item nvdimm=on|off
  90. Enables or disables NVDIMM support. The default is off.
  91. @item enforce-config-section=on|off
  92. If @option{enforce-config-section} is set to @var{on}, force migration
  93. code to send configuration section even if the machine-type sets the
  94. @option{migration.send-configuration} property to @var{off}.
  95. NOTE: this parameter is deprecated. Please use @option{-global}
  96. @option{migration.send-configuration}=@var{on|off} instead.
  97. @item memory-encryption=@var{}
  98. Memory encryption object to use. The default is none.
  99. @end table
  100. ETEXI
  101. HXCOMM Deprecated by -machine
  103. DEF("cpu", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_cpu,
  104. "-cpu cpu select CPU ('-cpu help' for list)\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  105. STEXI
  106. @item -cpu @var{model}
  107. @findex -cpu
  108. Select CPU model (@code{-cpu help} for list and additional feature selection)
  109. ETEXI
  110. DEF("accel", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_accel,
  111. "-accel [accel=]accelerator[,thread=single|multi]\n"
  112. " select accelerator (kvm, xen, hax, hvf, whpx or tcg; use 'help' for a list)\n"
  113. " thread=single|multi (enable multi-threaded TCG)\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  114. STEXI
  115. @item -accel @var{name}[,prop=@var{value}[,...]]
  116. @findex -accel
  117. This is used to enable an accelerator. Depending on the target architecture,
  118. kvm, xen, hax, hvf, whpx or tcg can be available. By default, tcg is used. If there is
  119. more than one accelerator specified, the next one is used if the previous one
  120. fails to initialize.
  121. @table @option
  122. @item thread=single|multi
  123. Controls number of TCG threads. When the TCG is multi-threaded there will be one
  124. thread per vCPU therefor taking advantage of additional host cores. The default
  125. is to enable multi-threading where both the back-end and front-ends support it and
  126. no incompatible TCG features have been enabled (e.g. icount/replay).
  127. @end table
  128. ETEXI
  129. DEF("smp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smp,
  130. "-smp [cpus=]n[,maxcpus=cpus][,cores=cores][,threads=threads][,sockets=sockets]\n"
  131. " set the number of CPUs to 'n' [default=1]\n"
  132. " maxcpus= maximum number of total cpus, including\n"
  133. " offline CPUs for hotplug, etc\n"
  134. " cores= number of CPU cores on one socket\n"
  135. " threads= number of threads on one CPU core\n"
  136. " sockets= number of discrete sockets in the system\n",
  138. STEXI
  139. @item -smp [cpus=]@var{n}[,cores=@var{cores}][,threads=@var{threads}][,sockets=@var{sockets}][,maxcpus=@var{maxcpus}]
  140. @findex -smp
  141. Simulate an SMP system with @var{n} CPUs. On the PC target, up to 255
  142. CPUs are supported. On Sparc32 target, Linux limits the number of usable CPUs
  143. to 4.
  144. For the PC target, the number of @var{cores} per socket, the number
  145. of @var{threads} per cores and the total number of @var{sockets} can be
  146. specified. Missing values will be computed. If any on the three values is
  147. given, the total number of CPUs @var{n} can be omitted. @var{maxcpus}
  148. specifies the maximum number of hotpluggable CPUs.
  149. ETEXI
  150. DEF("numa", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_numa,
  151. "-numa node[,mem=size][,cpus=firstcpu[-lastcpu]][,nodeid=node]\n"
  152. "-numa node[,memdev=id][,cpus=firstcpu[-lastcpu]][,nodeid=node]\n"
  153. "-numa dist,src=source,dst=destination,val=distance\n"
  154. "-numa cpu,node-id=node[,socket-id=x][,core-id=y][,thread-id=z]\n",
  156. STEXI
  157. @item -numa node[,mem=@var{size}][,cpus=@var{firstcpu}[-@var{lastcpu}]][,nodeid=@var{node}]
  158. @itemx -numa node[,memdev=@var{id}][,cpus=@var{firstcpu}[-@var{lastcpu}]][,nodeid=@var{node}]
  159. @itemx -numa dist,src=@var{source},dst=@var{destination},val=@var{distance}
  160. @itemx -numa cpu,node-id=@var{node}[,socket-id=@var{x}][,core-id=@var{y}][,thread-id=@var{z}]
  161. @findex -numa
  162. Define a NUMA node and assign RAM and VCPUs to it.
  163. Set the NUMA distance from a source node to a destination node.
  164. Legacy VCPU assignment uses @samp{cpus} option where
  165. @var{firstcpu} and @var{lastcpu} are CPU indexes. Each
  166. @samp{cpus} option represent a contiguous range of CPU indexes
  167. (or a single VCPU if @var{lastcpu} is omitted). A non-contiguous
  168. set of VCPUs can be represented by providing multiple @samp{cpus}
  169. options. If @samp{cpus} is omitted on all nodes, VCPUs are automatically
  170. split between them.
  171. For example, the following option assigns VCPUs 0, 1, 2 and 5 to
  172. a NUMA node:
  173. @example
  174. -numa node,cpus=0-2,cpus=5
  175. @end example
  176. @samp{cpu} option is a new alternative to @samp{cpus} option
  177. which uses @samp{socket-id|core-id|thread-id} properties to assign
  178. CPU objects to a @var{node} using topology layout properties of CPU.
  179. The set of properties is machine specific, and depends on used
  180. machine type/@samp{smp} options. It could be queried with
  181. @samp{hotpluggable-cpus} monitor command.
  182. @samp{node-id} property specifies @var{node} to which CPU object
  183. will be assigned, it's required for @var{node} to be declared
  184. with @samp{node} option before it's used with @samp{cpu} option.
  185. For example:
  186. @example
  187. -M pc \
  188. -smp 1,sockets=2,maxcpus=2 \
  189. -numa node,nodeid=0 -numa node,nodeid=1 \
  190. -numa cpu,node-id=0,socket-id=0 -numa cpu,node-id=1,socket-id=1
  191. @end example
  192. @samp{mem} assigns a given RAM amount to a node. @samp{memdev}
  193. assigns RAM from a given memory backend device to a node. If
  194. @samp{mem} and @samp{memdev} are omitted in all nodes, RAM is
  195. split equally between them.
  196. @samp{mem} and @samp{memdev} are mutually exclusive. Furthermore,
  197. if one node uses @samp{memdev}, all of them have to use it.
  198. @var{source} and @var{destination} are NUMA node IDs.
  199. @var{distance} is the NUMA distance from @var{source} to @var{destination}.
  200. The distance from a node to itself is always 10. If any pair of nodes is
  201. given a distance, then all pairs must be given distances. Although, when
  202. distances are only given in one direction for each pair of nodes, then
  203. the distances in the opposite directions are assumed to be the same. If,
  204. however, an asymmetrical pair of distances is given for even one node
  205. pair, then all node pairs must be provided distance values for both
  206. directions, even when they are symmetrical. When a node is unreachable
  207. from another node, set the pair's distance to 255.
  208. Note that the -@option{numa} option doesn't allocate any of the
  209. specified resources, it just assigns existing resources to NUMA
  210. nodes. This means that one still has to use the @option{-m},
  211. @option{-smp} options to allocate RAM and VCPUs respectively.
  212. ETEXI
  213. DEF("add-fd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_add_fd,
  214. "-add-fd fd=fd,set=set[,opaque=opaque]\n"
  215. " Add 'fd' to fd 'set'\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  216. STEXI
  217. @item -add-fd fd=@var{fd},set=@var{set}[,opaque=@var{opaque}]
  218. @findex -add-fd
  219. Add a file descriptor to an fd set. Valid options are:
  220. @table @option
  221. @item fd=@var{fd}
  222. This option defines the file descriptor of which a duplicate is added to fd set.
  223. The file descriptor cannot be stdin, stdout, or stderr.
  224. @item set=@var{set}
  225. This option defines the ID of the fd set to add the file descriptor to.
  226. @item opaque=@var{opaque}
  227. This option defines a free-form string that can be used to describe @var{fd}.
  228. @end table
  229. You can open an image using pre-opened file descriptors from an fd set:
  230. @example
  231. qemu-system-i386
  232. -add-fd fd=3,set=2,opaque="rdwr:/path/to/file"
  233. -add-fd fd=4,set=2,opaque="rdonly:/path/to/file"
  234. -drive file=/dev/fdset/2,index=0,media=disk
  235. @end example
  236. ETEXI
  237. DEF("set", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_set,
  238. "-set\n"
  239. " set <arg> parameter for item <id> of type <group>\n"
  240. " i.e. -set drive.$id.file=/path/to/image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  241. STEXI
  242. @item -set @var{group}.@var{id}.@var{arg}=@var{value}
  243. @findex -set
  244. Set parameter @var{arg} for item @var{id} of type @var{group}
  245. ETEXI
  246. DEF("global", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_global,
  247. "-global\n"
  248. "-global driver=driver,property=property,value=value\n"
  249. " set a global default for a driver property\n",
  251. STEXI
  252. @item -global @var{driver}.@var{prop}=@var{value}
  253. @itemx -global driver=@var{driver},property=@var{property},value=@var{value}
  254. @findex -global
  255. Set default value of @var{driver}'s property @var{prop} to @var{value}, e.g.:
  256. @example
  257. qemu-system-i386 -global ide-hd.physical_block_size=4096 disk-image.img
  258. @end example
  259. In particular, you can use this to set driver properties for devices which are
  260. created automatically by the machine model. To create a device which is not
  261. created automatically and set properties on it, use -@option{device}.
  262. -global @var{driver}.@var{prop}=@var{value} is shorthand for -global
  263. driver=@var{driver},property=@var{prop},value=@var{value}. The
  264. longhand syntax works even when @var{driver} contains a dot.
  265. ETEXI
  266. DEF("boot", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_boot,
  267. "-boot [order=drives][,once=drives][,menu=on|off]\n"
  268. " [,splash=sp_name][,splash-time=sp_time][,reboot-timeout=rb_time][,strict=on|off]\n"
  269. " 'drives': floppy (a), hard disk (c), CD-ROM (d), network (n)\n"
  270. " 'sp_name': the file's name that would be passed to bios as logo picture, if menu=on\n"
  271. " 'sp_time': the period that splash picture last if menu=on, unit is ms\n"
  272. " 'rb_timeout': the timeout before guest reboot when boot failed, unit is ms\n",
  274. STEXI
  275. @item -boot [order=@var{drives}][,once=@var{drives}][,menu=on|off][,splash=@var{sp_name}][,splash-time=@var{sp_time}][,reboot-timeout=@var{rb_timeout}][,strict=on|off]
  276. @findex -boot
  277. Specify boot order @var{drives} as a string of drive letters. Valid
  278. drive letters depend on the target architecture. The x86 PC uses: a, b
  279. (floppy 1 and 2), c (first hard disk), d (first CD-ROM), n-p (Etherboot
  280. from network adapter 1-4), hard disk boot is the default. To apply a
  281. particular boot order only on the first startup, specify it via
  282. @option{once}. Note that the @option{order} or @option{once} parameter
  283. should not be used together with the @option{bootindex} property of
  284. devices, since the firmware implementations normally do not support both
  285. at the same time.
  286. Interactive boot menus/prompts can be enabled via @option{menu=on} as far
  287. as firmware/BIOS supports them. The default is non-interactive boot.
  288. A splash picture could be passed to bios, enabling user to show it as logo,
  289. when option splash=@var{sp_name} is given and menu=on, If firmware/BIOS
  290. supports them. Currently Seabios for X86 system support it.
  291. limitation: The splash file could be a jpeg file or a BMP file in 24 BPP
  292. format(true color). The resolution should be supported by the SVGA mode, so
  293. the recommended is 320x240, 640x480, 800x640.
  294. A timeout could be passed to bios, guest will pause for @var{rb_timeout} ms
  295. when boot failed, then reboot. If @var{rb_timeout} is '-1', guest will not
  296. reboot, qemu passes '-1' to bios by default. Currently Seabios for X86
  297. system support it.
  298. Do strict boot via @option{strict=on} as far as firmware/BIOS
  299. supports it. This only effects when boot priority is changed by
  300. bootindex options. The default is non-strict boot.
  301. @example
  302. # try to boot from network first, then from hard disk
  303. qemu-system-i386 -boot order=nc
  304. # boot from CD-ROM first, switch back to default order after reboot
  305. qemu-system-i386 -boot once=d
  306. # boot with a splash picture for 5 seconds.
  307. qemu-system-i386 -boot menu=on,splash=/root/boot.bmp,splash-time=5000
  308. @end example
  309. Note: The legacy format '-boot @var{drives}' is still supported but its
  310. use is discouraged as it may be removed from future versions.
  311. ETEXI
  312. DEF("m", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_m,
  313. "-m [size=]megs[,slots=n,maxmem=size]\n"
  314. " configure guest RAM\n"
  315. " size: initial amount of guest memory\n"
  316. " slots: number of hotplug slots (default: none)\n"
  317. " maxmem: maximum amount of guest memory (default: none)\n"
  318. "NOTE: Some architectures might enforce a specific granularity\n",
  320. STEXI
  321. @item -m [size=]@var{megs}[,slots=n,maxmem=size]
  322. @findex -m
  323. Sets guest startup RAM size to @var{megs} megabytes. Default is 128 MiB.
  324. Optionally, a suffix of ``M'' or ``G'' can be used to signify a value in
  325. megabytes or gigabytes respectively. Optional pair @var{slots}, @var{maxmem}
  326. could be used to set amount of hotpluggable memory slots and maximum amount of
  327. memory. Note that @var{maxmem} must be aligned to the page size.
  328. For example, the following command-line sets the guest startup RAM size to
  329. 1GB, creates 3 slots to hotplug additional memory and sets the maximum
  330. memory the guest can reach to 4GB:
  331. @example
  332. qemu-system-x86_64 -m 1G,slots=3,maxmem=4G
  333. @end example
  334. If @var{slots} and @var{maxmem} are not specified, memory hotplug won't
  335. be enabled and the guest startup RAM will never increase.
  336. ETEXI
  337. DEF("mem-path", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mempath,
  338. "-mem-path FILE provide backing storage for guest RAM\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  339. STEXI
  340. @item -mem-path @var{path}
  341. @findex -mem-path
  342. Allocate guest RAM from a temporarily created file in @var{path}.
  343. ETEXI
  344. DEF("mem-prealloc", 0, QEMU_OPTION_mem_prealloc,
  345. "-mem-prealloc preallocate guest memory (use with -mem-path)\n",
  347. STEXI
  348. @item -mem-prealloc
  349. @findex -mem-prealloc
  350. Preallocate memory when using -mem-path.
  351. ETEXI
  352. DEF("k", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_k,
  353. "-k language use keyboard layout (for example 'fr' for French)\n",
  355. STEXI
  356. @item -k @var{language}
  357. @findex -k
  358. Use keyboard layout @var{language} (for example @code{fr} for
  359. French). This option is only needed where it is not easy to get raw PC
  360. keycodes (e.g. on Macs, with some X11 servers or with a VNC or curses
  361. display). You don't normally need to use it on PC/Linux or PC/Windows
  362. hosts.
  363. The available layouts are:
  364. @example
  365. ar de-ch es fo fr-ca hu ja mk no pt-br sv
  366. da en-gb et fr fr-ch is lt nl pl ru th
  367. de en-us fi fr-be hr it lv nl-be pt sl tr
  368. @end example
  369. The default is @code{en-us}.
  370. ETEXI
  371. HXCOMM Deprecated by -audiodev
  372. DEF("audio-help", 0, QEMU_OPTION_audio_help,
  373. "-audio-help show -audiodev equivalent of the currently specified audio settings\n",
  375. STEXI
  376. @item -audio-help
  377. @findex -audio-help
  378. Will show the -audiodev equivalent of the currently specified
  379. (deprecated) environment variables.
  380. ETEXI
  381. DEF("audiodev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_audiodev,
  382. "-audiodev [driver=]driver,id=id[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  383. " specifies the audio backend to use\n"
  384. " id= identifier of the backend\n"
  385. " timer-period= timer period in microseconds\n"
  386. " in|out.fixed-settings= use fixed settings for host audio\n"
  387. " in|out.frequency= frequency to use with fixed settings\n"
  388. " in|out.channels= number of channels to use with fixed settings\n"
  389. " in|out.format= sample format to use with fixed settings\n"
  390. " valid values: s8, s16, s32, u8, u16, u32\n"
  391. " in|out.voices= number of voices to use\n"
  392. " in|out.buffer-len= length of buffer in microseconds\n"
  393. "-audiodev none,id=id,[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  394. " dummy driver that discards all output\n"
  395. #ifdef CONFIG_AUDIO_ALSA
  396. "-audiodev alsa,id=id[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  397. " in| name of the audio device to use\n"
  398. " in|out.period-len= length of period in microseconds\n"
  399. " in|out.try-poll= attempt to use poll mode\n"
  400. " threshold= threshold (in microseconds) when playback starts\n"
  401. #endif
  403. "-audiodev coreaudio,id=id[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  404. " in|out.buffer-count= number of buffers\n"
  405. #endif
  407. "-audiodev dsound,id=id[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  408. " latency= add extra latency to playback in microseconds\n"
  409. #endif
  410. #ifdef CONFIG_AUDIO_OSS
  411. "-audiodev oss,id=id[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  412. " in| path of the audio device to use\n"
  413. " in|out.buffer-count= number of buffers\n"
  414. " in|out.try-poll= attempt to use poll mode\n"
  415. " try-mmap= try using memory mapped access\n"
  416. " exclusive= open device in exclusive mode\n"
  417. " dsp-policy= set timing policy (0..10), -1 to use fragment mode\n"
  418. #endif
  419. #ifdef CONFIG_AUDIO_PA
  420. "-audiodev pa,id=id[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  421. " server= PulseAudio server address\n"
  422. " in| source/sink device name\n"
  423. #endif
  424. #ifdef CONFIG_AUDIO_SDL
  425. "-audiodev sdl,id=id[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  426. #endif
  427. #ifdef CONFIG_SPICE
  428. "-audiodev spice,id=id[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  429. #endif
  430. "-audiodev wav,id=id[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  431. " path= path of wav file to record\n",
  433. STEXI
  434. @item -audiodev [driver=]@var{driver},id=@var{id}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  435. @findex -audiodev
  436. Adds a new audio backend @var{driver} identified by @var{id}. There are
  437. global and driver specific properties. Some values can be set
  438. differently for input and output, they're marked with @code{in|out.}.
  439. You can set the input's property with @code{in.@var{prop}} and the
  440. output's property with @code{out.@var{prop}}. For example:
  441. @example
  442. -audiodev alsa,id=example,in.frequency=44110,out.frequency=8000
  443. -audiodev alsa,id=example,out.channels=1 # leaves in.channels unspecified
  444. @end example
  445. Valid global options are:
  446. @table @option
  447. @item id=@var{identifier}
  448. Identifies the audio backend.
  449. @item timer-period=@var{period}
  450. Sets the timer @var{period} used by the audio subsystem in microseconds.
  451. Default is 10000 (10 ms).
  452. @item in|out.fixed-settings=on|off
  453. Use fixed settings for host audio. When off, it will change based on
  454. how the guest opens the sound card. In this case you must not specify
  455. @var{frequency}, @var{channels} or @var{format}. Default is on.
  456. @item in|out.frequency=@var{frequency}
  457. Specify the @var{frequency} to use when using @var{fixed-settings}.
  458. Default is 44100Hz.
  459. @item in|out.channels=@var{channels}
  460. Specify the number of @var{channels} to use when using
  461. @var{fixed-settings}. Default is 2 (stereo).
  462. @item in|out.format=@var{format}
  463. Specify the sample @var{format} to use when using @var{fixed-settings}.
  464. Valid values are: @code{s8}, @code{s16}, @code{s32}, @code{u8},
  465. @code{u16}, @code{u32}. Default is @code{s16}.
  466. @item in|out.voices=@var{voices}
  467. Specify the number of @var{voices} to use. Default is 1.
  468. @item in|out.buffer=@var{usecs}
  469. Sets the size of the buffer in microseconds.
  470. @end table
  471. @item -audiodev none,id=@var{id}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  472. Creates a dummy backend that discards all outputs. This backend has no
  473. backend specific properties.
  474. @item -audiodev alsa,id=@var{id}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  475. Creates backend using the ALSA. This backend is only available on
  476. Linux.
  477. ALSA specific options are:
  478. @table @option
  479. @item in|{device}
  480. Specify the ALSA @var{device} to use for input and/or output. Default
  481. is @code{default}.
  482. @item in|out.period-len=@var{usecs}
  483. Sets the period length in microseconds.
  484. @item in|out.try-poll=on|off
  485. Attempt to use poll mode with the device. Default is on.
  486. @item threshold=@var{threshold}
  487. Threshold (in microseconds) when playback starts. Default is 0.
  488. @end table
  489. @item -audiodev coreaudio,id=@var{id}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  490. Creates a backend using Apple's Core Audio. This backend is only
  491. available on Mac OS and only supports playback.
  492. Core Audio specific options are:
  493. @table @option
  494. @item in|out.buffer-count=@var{count}
  495. Sets the @var{count} of the buffers.
  496. @end table
  497. @item -audiodev dsound,id=@var{id}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  498. Creates a backend using Microsoft's DirectSound. This backend is only
  499. available on Windows and only supports playback.
  500. DirectSound specific options are:
  501. @table @option
  502. @item latency=@var{usecs}
  503. Add extra @var{usecs} microseconds latency to playback. Default is
  504. 10000 (10 ms).
  505. @end table
  506. @item -audiodev oss,id=@var{id}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  507. Creates a backend using OSS. This backend is available on most
  508. Unix-like systems.
  509. OSS specific options are:
  510. @table @option
  511. @item in|{device}
  512. Specify the file name of the OSS @var{device} to use. Default is
  513. @code{/dev/dsp}.
  514. @item in|out.buffer-count=@var{count}
  515. Sets the @var{count} of the buffers.
  516. @item in|out.try-poll=on|of
  517. Attempt to use poll mode with the device. Default is on.
  518. @item try-mmap=on|off
  519. Try using memory mapped device access. Default is off.
  520. @item exclusive=on|off
  521. Open the device in exclusive mode (vmix won't work in this case).
  522. Default is off.
  523. @item dsp-policy=@var{policy}
  524. Sets the timing policy (between 0 and 10, where smaller number means
  525. smaller latency but higher CPU usage). Use -1 to use buffer sizes
  526. specified by @code{buffer} and @code{buffer-count}. This option is
  527. ignored if you do not have OSS 4. Default is 5.
  528. @end table
  529. @item -audiodev pa,id=@var{id}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  530. Creates a backend using PulseAudio. This backend is available on most
  531. systems.
  532. PulseAudio specific options are:
  533. @table @option
  534. @item server=@var{server}
  535. Sets the PulseAudio @var{server} to connect to.
  536. @item in|{sink}
  537. Use the specified source/sink for recording/playback.
  538. @end table
  539. @item -audiodev sdl,id=@var{id}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  540. Creates a backend using SDL. This backend is available on most systems,
  541. but you should use your platform's native backend if possible. This
  542. backend has no backend specific properties.
  543. @item -audiodev spice,id=@var{id}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  544. Creates a backend that sends audio through SPICE. This backend requires
  545. @code{-spice} and automatically selected in that case, so usually you
  546. can ignore this option. This backend has no backend specific
  547. properties.
  548. @item -audiodev wav,id=@var{id}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  549. Creates a backend that writes audio to a WAV file.
  550. Backend specific options are:
  551. @table @option
  552. @item path=@var{path}
  553. Write recorded audio into the specified file. Default is
  554. @code{qemu.wav}.
  555. @end table
  556. ETEXI
  557. DEF("soundhw", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_soundhw,
  558. "-soundhw c1,... enable audio support\n"
  559. " and only specified sound cards (comma separated list)\n"
  560. " use '-soundhw help' to get the list of supported cards\n"
  561. " use '-soundhw all' to enable all of them\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  562. STEXI
  563. @item -soundhw @var{card1}[,@var{card2},...] or -soundhw all
  564. @findex -soundhw
  565. Enable audio and selected sound hardware. Use 'help' to print all
  566. available sound hardware.
  567. @example
  568. qemu-system-i386 -soundhw sb16,adlib disk.img
  569. qemu-system-i386 -soundhw es1370 disk.img
  570. qemu-system-i386 -soundhw ac97 disk.img
  571. qemu-system-i386 -soundhw hda disk.img
  572. qemu-system-i386 -soundhw all disk.img
  573. qemu-system-i386 -soundhw help
  574. @end example
  575. Note that Linux's i810_audio OSS kernel (for AC97) module might
  576. require manually specifying clocking.
  577. @example
  578. modprobe i810_audio clocking=48000
  579. @end example
  580. ETEXI
  581. DEF("device", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_device,
  582. "-device driver[,prop[=value][,...]]\n"
  583. " add device (based on driver)\n"
  584. " prop=value,... sets driver properties\n"
  585. " use '-device help' to print all possible drivers\n"
  586. " use '-device driver,help' to print all possible properties\n",
  588. STEXI
  589. @item -device @var{driver}[,@var{prop}[=@var{value}][,...]]
  590. @findex -device
  591. Add device @var{driver}. @var{prop}=@var{value} sets driver
  592. properties. Valid properties depend on the driver. To get help on
  593. possible drivers and properties, use @code{-device help} and
  594. @code{-device @var{driver},help}.
  595. Some drivers are:
  596. @item -device ipmi-bmc-sim,id=@var{id}[,slave_addr=@var{val}][,sdrfile=@var{file}][,furareasize=@var{val}][,furdatafile=@var{file}]
  597. Add an IPMI BMC. This is a simulation of a hardware management
  598. interface processor that normally sits on a system. It provides
  599. a watchdog and the ability to reset and power control the system.
  600. You need to connect this to an IPMI interface to make it useful
  601. The IPMI slave address to use for the BMC. The default is 0x20.
  602. This address is the BMC's address on the I2C network of management
  603. controllers. If you don't know what this means, it is safe to ignore
  604. it.
  605. @table @option
  606. @item bmc=@var{id}
  607. The BMC to connect to, one of ipmi-bmc-sim or ipmi-bmc-extern above.
  608. @item slave_addr=@var{val}
  609. Define slave address to use for the BMC. The default is 0x20.
  610. @item sdrfile=@var{file}
  611. file containing raw Sensor Data Records (SDR) data. The default is none.
  612. @item fruareasize=@var{val}
  613. size of a Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) area. The default is 1024.
  614. @item frudatafile=@var{file}
  615. file containing raw Field Replaceable Unit (FRU) inventory data. The default is none.
  616. @end table
  617. @item -device ipmi-bmc-extern,id=@var{id},chardev=@var{id}[,slave_addr=@var{val}]
  618. Add a connection to an external IPMI BMC simulator. Instead of
  619. locally emulating the BMC like the above item, instead connect
  620. to an external entity that provides the IPMI services.
  621. A connection is made to an external BMC simulator. If you do this, it
  622. is strongly recommended that you use the "reconnect=" chardev option
  623. to reconnect to the simulator if the connection is lost. Note that if
  624. this is not used carefully, it can be a security issue, as the
  625. interface has the ability to send resets, NMIs, and power off the VM.
  626. It's best if QEMU makes a connection to an external simulator running
  627. on a secure port on localhost, so neither the simulator nor QEMU is
  628. exposed to any outside network.
  629. See the "lanserv/README.vm" file in the OpenIPMI library for more
  630. details on the external interface.
  631. @item -device isa-ipmi-kcs,bmc=@var{id}[,ioport=@var{val}][,irq=@var{val}]
  632. Add a KCS IPMI interafce on the ISA bus. This also adds a
  633. corresponding ACPI and SMBIOS entries, if appropriate.
  634. @table @option
  635. @item bmc=@var{id}
  636. The BMC to connect to, one of ipmi-bmc-sim or ipmi-bmc-extern above.
  637. @item ioport=@var{val}
  638. Define the I/O address of the interface. The default is 0xca0 for KCS.
  639. @item irq=@var{val}
  640. Define the interrupt to use. The default is 5. To disable interrupts,
  641. set this to 0.
  642. @end table
  643. @item -device isa-ipmi-bt,bmc=@var{id}[,ioport=@var{val}][,irq=@var{val}]
  644. Like the KCS interface, but defines a BT interface. The default port is
  645. 0xe4 and the default interrupt is 5.
  646. ETEXI
  647. DEF("name", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_name,
  648. "-name string1[,process=string2][,debug-threads=on|off]\n"
  649. " set the name of the guest\n"
  650. " string1 sets the window title and string2 the process name\n"
  651. " When debug-threads is enabled, individual threads are given a separate name\n"
  652. " NOTE: The thread names are for debugging and not a stable API.\n",
  654. STEXI
  655. @item -name @var{name}
  656. @findex -name
  657. Sets the @var{name} of the guest.
  658. This name will be displayed in the SDL window caption.
  659. The @var{name} will also be used for the VNC server.
  660. Also optionally set the top visible process name in Linux.
  661. Naming of individual threads can also be enabled on Linux to aid debugging.
  662. ETEXI
  663. DEF("uuid", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_uuid,
  664. "-uuid %08x-%04x-%04x-%04x-%012x\n"
  665. " specify machine UUID\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  666. STEXI
  667. @item -uuid @var{uuid}
  668. @findex -uuid
  669. Set system UUID.
  670. ETEXI
  671. STEXI
  672. @end table
  673. ETEXI
  675. DEFHEADING(Block device options:)
  676. STEXI
  677. @table @option
  678. ETEXI
  679. DEF("fda", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fda,
  680. "-fda/-fdb file use 'file' as floppy disk 0/1 image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  681. DEF("fdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fdb, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  682. STEXI
  683. @item -fda @var{file}
  684. @itemx -fdb @var{file}
  685. @findex -fda
  686. @findex -fdb
  687. Use @var{file} as floppy disk 0/1 image (@pxref{disk_images}).
  688. ETEXI
  689. DEF("hda", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hda,
  690. "-hda/-hdb file use 'file' as IDE hard disk 0/1 image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  691. DEF("hdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdb, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  692. DEF("hdc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdc,
  693. "-hdc/-hdd file use 'file' as IDE hard disk 2/3 image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  694. DEF("hdd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_hdd, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  695. STEXI
  696. @item -hda @var{file}
  697. @itemx -hdb @var{file}
  698. @itemx -hdc @var{file}
  699. @itemx -hdd @var{file}
  700. @findex -hda
  701. @findex -hdb
  702. @findex -hdc
  703. @findex -hdd
  704. Use @var{file} as hard disk 0, 1, 2 or 3 image (@pxref{disk_images}).
  705. ETEXI
  706. DEF("cdrom", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_cdrom,
  707. "-cdrom file use 'file' as IDE cdrom image (cdrom is ide1 master)\n",
  709. STEXI
  710. @item -cdrom @var{file}
  711. @findex -cdrom
  712. Use @var{file} as CD-ROM image (you cannot use @option{-hdc} and
  713. @option{-cdrom} at the same time). You can use the host CD-ROM by
  714. using @file{/dev/cdrom} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
  715. ETEXI
  716. DEF("blockdev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_blockdev,
  717. "-blockdev [driver=]driver[,node-name=N][,discard=ignore|unmap]\n"
  718. " [,|off][,|off]\n"
  719. " [,read-only=on|off][,detect-zeroes=on|off|unmap]\n"
  720. " [,driver specific parameters...]\n"
  721. " configure a block backend\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  722. STEXI
  723. @item -blockdev @var{option}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
  724. @findex -blockdev
  725. Define a new block driver node. Some of the options apply to all block drivers,
  726. other options are only accepted for a specific block driver. See below for a
  727. list of generic options and options for the most common block drivers.
  728. Options that expect a reference to another node (e.g. @code{file}) can be
  729. given in two ways. Either you specify the node name of an already existing node
  730. (file=@var{node-name}), or you define a new node inline, adding options
  731. for the referenced node after a dot (file.filename=@var{path},file.aio=native).
  732. A block driver node created with @option{-blockdev} can be used for a guest
  733. device by specifying its node name for the @code{drive} property in a
  734. @option{-device} argument that defines a block device.
  735. @table @option
  736. @item Valid options for any block driver node:
  737. @table @code
  738. @item driver
  739. Specifies the block driver to use for the given node.
  740. @item node-name
  741. This defines the name of the block driver node by which it will be referenced
  742. later. The name must be unique, i.e. it must not match the name of a different
  743. block driver node, or (if you use @option{-drive} as well) the ID of a drive.
  744. If no node name is specified, it is automatically generated. The generated node
  745. name is not intended to be predictable and changes between QEMU invocations.
  746. For the top level, an explicit node name must be specified.
  747. @item read-only
  748. Open the node read-only. Guest write attempts will fail.
  749. @item
  750. The host page cache can be avoided with @option{}. This will
  751. attempt to do disk IO directly to the guest's memory. QEMU may still perform an
  752. internal copy of the data.
  753. @item
  754. In case you don't care about data integrity over host failures, you can use
  755. @option{}. This option tells QEMU that it never needs to write
  756. any data to the disk but can instead keep things in cache. If anything goes
  757. wrong, like your host losing power, the disk storage getting disconnected
  758. accidentally, etc. your image will most probably be rendered unusable.
  759. @item discard=@var{discard}
  760. @var{discard} is one of "ignore" (or "off") or "unmap" (or "on") and controls
  761. whether @code{discard} (also known as @code{trim} or @code{unmap}) requests are
  762. ignored or passed to the filesystem. Some machine types may not support
  763. discard requests.
  764. @item detect-zeroes=@var{detect-zeroes}
  765. @var{detect-zeroes} is "off", "on" or "unmap" and enables the automatic
  766. conversion of plain zero writes by the OS to driver specific optimized
  767. zero write commands. You may even choose "unmap" if @var{discard} is set
  768. to "unmap" to allow a zero write to be converted to an @code{unmap} operation.
  769. @end table
  770. @item Driver-specific options for @code{file}
  771. This is the protocol-level block driver for accessing regular files.
  772. @table @code
  773. @item filename
  774. The path to the image file in the local filesystem
  775. @item aio
  776. Specifies the AIO backend (threads/native, default: threads)
  777. @item locking
  778. Specifies whether the image file is protected with Linux OFD / POSIX locks. The
  779. default is to use the Linux Open File Descriptor API if available, otherwise no
  780. lock is applied. (auto/on/off, default: auto)
  781. @end table
  782. Example:
  783. @example
  784. -blockdev driver=file,node-name=disk,filename=disk.img
  785. @end example
  786. @item Driver-specific options for @code{raw}
  787. This is the image format block driver for raw images. It is usually
  788. stacked on top of a protocol level block driver such as @code{file}.
  789. @table @code
  790. @item file
  791. Reference to or definition of the data source block driver node
  792. (e.g. a @code{file} driver node)
  793. @end table
  794. Example 1:
  795. @example
  796. -blockdev driver=file,node-name=disk_file,filename=disk.img
  797. -blockdev driver=raw,node-name=disk,file=disk_file
  798. @end example
  799. Example 2:
  800. @example
  801. -blockdev driver=raw,node-name=disk,file.driver=file,file.filename=disk.img
  802. @end example
  803. @item Driver-specific options for @code{qcow2}
  804. This is the image format block driver for qcow2 images. It is usually
  805. stacked on top of a protocol level block driver such as @code{file}.
  806. @table @code
  807. @item file
  808. Reference to or definition of the data source block driver node
  809. (e.g. a @code{file} driver node)
  810. @item backing
  811. Reference to or definition of the backing file block device (default is taken
  812. from the image file). It is allowed to pass @code{null} here in order to disable
  813. the default backing file.
  814. @item lazy-refcounts
  815. Whether to enable the lazy refcounts feature (on/off; default is taken from the
  816. image file)
  817. @item cache-size
  818. The maximum total size of the L2 table and refcount block caches in bytes
  819. (default: the sum of l2-cache-size and refcount-cache-size)
  820. @item l2-cache-size
  821. The maximum size of the L2 table cache in bytes
  822. (default: if cache-size is not specified - 32M on Linux platforms, and 8M on
  823. non-Linux platforms; otherwise, as large as possible within the cache-size,
  824. while permitting the requested or the minimal refcount cache size)
  825. @item refcount-cache-size
  826. The maximum size of the refcount block cache in bytes
  827. (default: 4 times the cluster size; or if cache-size is specified, the part of
  828. it which is not used for the L2 cache)
  829. @item cache-clean-interval
  830. Clean unused entries in the L2 and refcount caches. The interval is in seconds.
  831. The default value is 600 on supporting platforms, and 0 on other platforms.
  832. Setting it to 0 disables this feature.
  833. @item pass-discard-request
  834. Whether discard requests to the qcow2 device should be forwarded to the data
  835. source (on/off; default: on if discard=unmap is specified, off otherwise)
  836. @item pass-discard-snapshot
  837. Whether discard requests for the data source should be issued when a snapshot
  838. operation (e.g. deleting a snapshot) frees clusters in the qcow2 file (on/off;
  839. default: on)
  840. @item pass-discard-other
  841. Whether discard requests for the data source should be issued on other
  842. occasions where a cluster gets freed (on/off; default: off)
  843. @item overlap-check
  844. Which overlap checks to perform for writes to the image
  845. (none/constant/cached/all; default: cached). For details or finer
  846. granularity control refer to the QAPI documentation of @code{blockdev-add}.
  847. @end table
  848. Example 1:
  849. @example
  850. -blockdev driver=file,node-name=my_file,filename=/tmp/disk.qcow2
  851. -blockdev driver=qcow2,node-name=hda,file=my_file,overlap-check=none,cache-size=16777216
  852. @end example
  853. Example 2:
  854. @example
  855. -blockdev driver=qcow2,node-name=disk,file.driver=http,file.filename=
  856. @end example
  857. @item Driver-specific options for other drivers
  858. Please refer to the QAPI documentation of the @code{blockdev-add} QMP command.
  859. @end table
  860. ETEXI
  861. DEF("drive", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_drive,
  862. "-drive [file=file][,if=type][,bus=n][,unit=m][,media=d][,index=i]\n"
  863. " [,cache=writethrough|writeback|none|directsync|unsafe][,format=f]\n"
  864. " [,snapshot=on|off][,rerror=ignore|stop|report]\n"
  865. " [,werror=ignore|stop|report|enospc][,id=name][,aio=threads|native]\n"
  866. " [,readonly=on|off][,copy-on-read=on|off]\n"
  867. " [,discard=ignore|unmap][,detect-zeroes=on|off|unmap]\n"
  868. " [[,bps=b]|[[,bps_rd=r][,bps_wr=w]]]\n"
  869. " [[,iops=i]|[[,iops_rd=r][,iops_wr=w]]]\n"
  870. " [[,bps_max=bm]|[[,bps_rd_max=rm][,bps_wr_max=wm]]]\n"
  871. " [[,iops_max=im]|[[,iops_rd_max=irm][,iops_wr_max=iwm]]]\n"
  872. " [[,iops_size=is]]\n"
  873. " [[,group=g]]\n"
  874. " use 'file' as a drive image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  875. STEXI
  876. @item -drive @var{option}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
  877. @findex -drive
  878. Define a new drive. This includes creating a block driver node (the backend) as
  879. well as a guest device, and is mostly a shortcut for defining the corresponding
  880. @option{-blockdev} and @option{-device} options.
  881. @option{-drive} accepts all options that are accepted by @option{-blockdev}. In
  882. addition, it knows the following options:
  883. @table @option
  884. @item file=@var{file}
  885. This option defines which disk image (@pxref{disk_images}) to use with
  886. this drive. If the filename contains comma, you must double it
  887. (for instance, "file=my,,file" to use file "my,file").
  888. Special files such as iSCSI devices can be specified using protocol
  889. specific URLs. See the section for "Device URL Syntax" for more information.
  890. @item if=@var{interface}
  891. This option defines on which type on interface the drive is connected.
  892. Available types are: ide, scsi, sd, mtd, floppy, pflash, virtio, none.
  893. @item bus=@var{bus},unit=@var{unit}
  894. These options define where is connected the drive by defining the bus number and
  895. the unit id.
  896. @item index=@var{index}
  897. This option defines where is connected the drive by using an index in the list
  898. of available connectors of a given interface type.
  899. @item media=@var{media}
  900. This option defines the type of the media: disk or cdrom.
  901. @item snapshot=@var{snapshot}
  902. @var{snapshot} is "on" or "off" and controls snapshot mode for the given drive
  903. (see @option{-snapshot}).
  904. @item cache=@var{cache}
  905. @var{cache} is "none", "writeback", "unsafe", "directsync" or "writethrough"
  906. and controls how the host cache is used to access block data. This is a
  907. shortcut that sets the @option{} and @option{}
  908. options (as in @option{-blockdev}), and additionally @option{cache.writeback},
  909. which provides a default for the @option{write-cache} option of block guest
  910. devices (as in @option{-device}). The modes correspond to the following
  911. settings:
  912. @c Our script doesn't support @multitable, so fall back to using
  913. @c plain ASCII art (well, UTF-8 art really). This looks okay both in the manpage
  914. @c and the HTML output.
  915. @example
  916. @ │ cache.writeback
  917. ─────────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────────────
  918. writeback │ on off off
  919. none │ on on off
  920. writethrough │ off off off
  921. directsync │ off on off
  922. unsafe │ on off on
  923. @end example
  924. The default mode is @option{cache=writeback}.
  925. @item aio=@var{aio}
  926. @var{aio} is "threads", or "native" and selects between pthread based disk I/O and native Linux AIO.
  927. @item format=@var{format}
  928. Specify which disk @var{format} will be used rather than detecting
  929. the format. Can be used to specify format=raw to avoid interpreting
  930. an untrusted format header.
  931. @item werror=@var{action},rerror=@var{action}
  932. Specify which @var{action} to take on write and read errors. Valid actions are:
  933. "ignore" (ignore the error and try to continue), "stop" (pause QEMU),
  934. "report" (report the error to the guest), "enospc" (pause QEMU only if the
  935. host disk is full; report the error to the guest otherwise).
  936. The default setting is @option{werror=enospc} and @option{rerror=report}.
  937. @item copy-on-read=@var{copy-on-read}
  938. @var{copy-on-read} is "on" or "off" and enables whether to copy read backing
  939. file sectors into the image file.
  940. @item bps=@var{b},bps_rd=@var{r},bps_wr=@var{w}
  941. Specify bandwidth throttling limits in bytes per second, either for all request
  942. types or for reads or writes only. Small values can lead to timeouts or hangs
  943. inside the guest. A safe minimum for disks is 2 MB/s.
  944. @item bps_max=@var{bm},bps_rd_max=@var{rm},bps_wr_max=@var{wm}
  945. Specify bursts in bytes per second, either for all request types or for reads
  946. or writes only. Bursts allow the guest I/O to spike above the limit
  947. temporarily.
  948. @item iops=@var{i},iops_rd=@var{r},iops_wr=@var{w}
  949. Specify request rate limits in requests per second, either for all request
  950. types or for reads or writes only.
  951. @item iops_max=@var{bm},iops_rd_max=@var{rm},iops_wr_max=@var{wm}
  952. Specify bursts in requests per second, either for all request types or for reads
  953. or writes only. Bursts allow the guest I/O to spike above the limit
  954. temporarily.
  955. @item iops_size=@var{is}
  956. Let every @var{is} bytes of a request count as a new request for iops
  957. throttling purposes. Use this option to prevent guests from circumventing iops
  958. limits by sending fewer but larger requests.
  959. @item group=@var{g}
  960. Join a throttling quota group with given name @var{g}. All drives that are
  961. members of the same group are accounted for together. Use this option to
  962. prevent guests from circumventing throttling limits by using many small disks
  963. instead of a single larger disk.
  964. @end table
  965. By default, the @option{cache.writeback=on} mode is used. It will report data
  966. writes as completed as soon as the data is present in the host page cache.
  967. This is safe as long as your guest OS makes sure to correctly flush disk caches
  968. where needed. If your guest OS does not handle volatile disk write caches
  969. correctly and your host crashes or loses power, then the guest may experience
  970. data corruption.
  971. For such guests, you should consider using @option{cache.writeback=off}. This
  972. means that the host page cache will be used to read and write data, but write
  973. notification will be sent to the guest only after QEMU has made sure to flush
  974. each write to the disk. Be aware that this has a major impact on performance.
  975. When using the @option{-snapshot} option, unsafe caching is always used.
  976. Copy-on-read avoids accessing the same backing file sectors repeatedly and is
  977. useful when the backing file is over a slow network. By default copy-on-read
  978. is off.
  979. Instead of @option{-cdrom} you can use:
  980. @example
  981. qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=2,media=cdrom
  982. @end example
  983. Instead of @option{-hda}, @option{-hdb}, @option{-hdc}, @option{-hdd}, you can
  984. use:
  985. @example
  986. qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=0,media=disk
  987. qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=1,media=disk
  988. qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=2,media=disk
  989. qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=3,media=disk
  990. @end example
  991. You can open an image using pre-opened file descriptors from an fd set:
  992. @example
  993. qemu-system-i386
  994. -add-fd fd=3,set=2,opaque="rdwr:/path/to/file"
  995. -add-fd fd=4,set=2,opaque="rdonly:/path/to/file"
  996. -drive file=/dev/fdset/2,index=0,media=disk
  997. @end example
  998. You can connect a CDROM to the slave of ide0:
  999. @example
  1000. qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom
  1001. @end example
  1002. If you don't specify the "file=" argument, you define an empty drive:
  1003. @example
  1004. qemu-system-i386 -drive if=ide,index=1,media=cdrom
  1005. @end example
  1006. Instead of @option{-fda}, @option{-fdb}, you can use:
  1007. @example
  1008. qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=0,if=floppy
  1009. qemu-system-i386 -drive file=file,index=1,if=floppy
  1010. @end example
  1011. By default, @var{interface} is "ide" and @var{index} is automatically
  1012. incremented:
  1013. @example
  1014. qemu-system-i386 -drive file=a -drive file=b"
  1015. @end example
  1016. is interpreted like:
  1017. @example
  1018. qemu-system-i386 -hda a -hdb b
  1019. @end example
  1020. ETEXI
  1021. DEF("mtdblock", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mtdblock,
  1022. "-mtdblock file use 'file' as on-board Flash memory image\n",
  1023. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1024. STEXI
  1025. @item -mtdblock @var{file}
  1026. @findex -mtdblock
  1027. Use @var{file} as on-board Flash memory image.
  1028. ETEXI
  1029. DEF("sd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_sd,
  1030. "-sd file use 'file' as SecureDigital card image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1031. STEXI
  1032. @item -sd @var{file}
  1033. @findex -sd
  1034. Use @var{file} as SecureDigital card image.
  1035. ETEXI
  1036. DEF("pflash", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_pflash,
  1037. "-pflash file use 'file' as a parallel flash image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1038. STEXI
  1039. @item -pflash @var{file}
  1040. @findex -pflash
  1041. Use @var{file} as a parallel flash image.
  1042. ETEXI
  1043. DEF("snapshot", 0, QEMU_OPTION_snapshot,
  1044. "-snapshot write to temporary files instead of disk image files\n",
  1045. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1046. STEXI
  1047. @item -snapshot
  1048. @findex -snapshot
  1049. Write to temporary files instead of disk image files. In this case,
  1050. the raw disk image you use is not written back. You can however force
  1051. the write back by pressing @key{C-a s} (@pxref{disk_images}).
  1052. ETEXI
  1053. DEF("fsdev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fsdev,
  1054. "-fsdev local,id=id,path=path,security_model=mapped-xattr|mapped-file|passthrough|none\n"
  1055. " [,writeout=immediate][,readonly][,fmode=fmode][,dmode=dmode]\n"
  1056. " [[,throttling.bps-total=b]|[[,throttling.bps-read=r][,throttling.bps-write=w]]]\n"
  1057. " [[,throttling.iops-total=i]|[[,throttling.iops-read=r][,throttling.iops-write=w]]]\n"
  1058. " [[,throttling.bps-total-max=bm]|[[,throttling.bps-read-max=rm][,throttling.bps-write-max=wm]]]\n"
  1059. " [[,throttling.iops-total-max=im]|[[,throttling.iops-read-max=irm][,throttling.iops-write-max=iwm]]]\n"
  1060. " [[,throttling.iops-size=is]]\n"
  1061. "-fsdev proxy,id=id,socket=socket[,writeout=immediate][,readonly]\n"
  1062. "-fsdev proxy,id=id,sock_fd=sock_fd[,writeout=immediate][,readonly]\n"
  1063. "-fsdev synth,id=id\n",
  1064. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1065. STEXI
  1066. @item -fsdev local,id=@var{id},path=@var{path},security_model=@var{security_model} [,writeout=@var{writeout}][,readonly][,fmode=@var{fmode}][,dmode=@var{dmode}] [,throttling.@var{option}=@var{value}[,throttling.@var{option}=@var{value}[,...]]]
  1067. @itemx -fsdev proxy,id=@var{id},socket=@var{socket}[,writeout=@var{writeout}][,readonly]
  1068. @itemx -fsdev proxy,id=@var{id},sock_fd=@var{sock_fd}[,writeout=@var{writeout}][,readonly]
  1069. @itemx -fsdev synth,id=@var{id}[,readonly]
  1070. @findex -fsdev
  1071. Define a new file system device. Valid options are:
  1072. @table @option
  1073. @item local
  1074. Accesses to the filesystem are done by QEMU.
  1075. @item proxy
  1076. Accesses to the filesystem are done by virtfs-proxy-helper(1).
  1077. @item synth
  1078. Synthetic filesystem, only used by QTests.
  1079. @item id=@var{id}
  1080. Specifies identifier for this device.
  1081. @item path=@var{path}
  1082. Specifies the export path for the file system device. Files under
  1083. this path will be available to the 9p client on the guest.
  1084. @item security_model=@var{security_model}
  1085. Specifies the security model to be used for this export path.
  1086. Supported security models are "passthrough", "mapped-xattr", "mapped-file" and "none".
  1087. In "passthrough" security model, files are stored using the same
  1088. credentials as they are created on the guest. This requires QEMU
  1089. to run as root. In "mapped-xattr" security model, some of the file
  1090. attributes like uid, gid, mode bits and link target are stored as
  1091. file attributes. For "mapped-file" these attributes are stored in the
  1092. hidden .virtfs_metadata directory. Directories exported by this security model cannot
  1093. interact with other unix tools. "none" security model is same as
  1094. passthrough except the sever won't report failures if it fails to
  1095. set file attributes like ownership. Security model is mandatory
  1096. only for local fsdriver. Other fsdrivers (like proxy) don't take
  1097. security model as a parameter.
  1098. @item writeout=@var{writeout}
  1099. This is an optional argument. The only supported value is "immediate".
  1100. This means that host page cache will be used to read and write data but
  1101. write notification will be sent to the guest only when the data has been
  1102. reported as written by the storage subsystem.
  1103. @item readonly
  1104. Enables exporting 9p share as a readonly mount for guests. By default
  1105. read-write access is given.
  1106. @item socket=@var{socket}
  1107. Enables proxy filesystem driver to use passed socket file for communicating
  1108. with virtfs-proxy-helper(1).
  1109. @item sock_fd=@var{sock_fd}
  1110. Enables proxy filesystem driver to use passed socket descriptor for
  1111. communicating with virtfs-proxy-helper(1). Usually a helper like libvirt
  1112. will create socketpair and pass one of the fds as sock_fd.
  1113. @item fmode=@var{fmode}
  1114. Specifies the default mode for newly created files on the host. Works only
  1115. with security models "mapped-xattr" and "mapped-file".
  1116. @item dmode=@var{dmode}
  1117. Specifies the default mode for newly created directories on the host. Works
  1118. only with security models "mapped-xattr" and "mapped-file".
  1119. @item throttling.bps-total=@var{b},throttling.bps-read=@var{r},throttling.bps-write=@var{w}
  1120. Specify bandwidth throttling limits in bytes per second, either for all request
  1121. types or for reads or writes only.
  1122. @item throttling.bps-total-max=@var{bm},bps-read-max=@var{rm},bps-write-max=@var{wm}
  1123. Specify bursts in bytes per second, either for all request types or for reads
  1124. or writes only. Bursts allow the guest I/O to spike above the limit
  1125. temporarily.
  1126. @item throttling.iops-total=@var{i},throttling.iops-read=@var{r}, throttling.iops-write=@var{w}
  1127. Specify request rate limits in requests per second, either for all request
  1128. types or for reads or writes only.
  1129. @item throttling.iops-total-max=@var{im},throttling.iops-read-max=@var{irm}, throttling.iops-write-max=@var{iwm}
  1130. Specify bursts in requests per second, either for all request types or for reads
  1131. or writes only. Bursts allow the guest I/O to spike above the limit temporarily.
  1132. @item throttling.iops-size=@var{is}
  1133. Let every @var{is} bytes of a request count as a new request for iops
  1134. throttling purposes.
  1135. @end table
  1136. -fsdev option is used along with -device driver "virtio-9p-...".
  1137. @item -device virtio-9p-@var{type},fsdev=@var{id},mount_tag=@var{mount_tag}
  1138. Options for virtio-9p-... driver are:
  1139. @table @option
  1140. @item @var{type}
  1141. Specifies the variant to be used. Supported values are "pci", "ccw" or "device",
  1142. depending on the machine type.
  1143. @item fsdev=@var{id}
  1144. Specifies the id value specified along with -fsdev option.
  1145. @item mount_tag=@var{mount_tag}
  1146. Specifies the tag name to be used by the guest to mount this export point.
  1147. @end table
  1148. ETEXI
  1149. DEF("virtfs", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_virtfs,
  1150. "-virtfs local,path=path,mount_tag=tag,security_model=mapped-xattr|mapped-file|passthrough|none\n"
  1151. " [,id=id][,writeout=immediate][,readonly][,fmode=fmode][,dmode=dmode]\n"
  1152. "-virtfs proxy,mount_tag=tag,socket=socket[,id=id][,writeout=immediate][,readonly]\n"
  1153. "-virtfs proxy,mount_tag=tag,sock_fd=sock_fd[,id=id][,writeout=immediate][,readonly]\n"
  1154. "-virtfs synth,mount_tag=tag[,id=id][,readonly]\n",
  1155. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1156. STEXI
  1157. @item -virtfs local,path=@var{path},mount_tag=@var{mount_tag} ,security_model=@var{security_model}[,writeout=@var{writeout}][,readonly] [,fmode=@var{fmode}][,dmode=@var{dmode}]
  1158. @itemx -virtfs proxy,socket=@var{socket},mount_tag=@var{mount_tag} [,writeout=@var{writeout}][,readonly]
  1159. @itemx -virtfs proxy,sock_fd=@var{sock_fd},mount_tag=@var{mount_tag} [,writeout=@var{writeout}][,readonly]
  1160. @itemx -virtfs synth,mount_tag=@var{mount_tag}
  1161. @findex -virtfs
  1162. Define a new filesystem device and expose it to the guest using a virtio-9p-device. The general form of a Virtual File system pass-through options are:
  1163. @table @option
  1164. @item local
  1165. Accesses to the filesystem are done by QEMU.
  1166. @item proxy
  1167. Accesses to the filesystem are done by virtfs-proxy-helper(1).
  1168. @item synth
  1169. Synthetic filesystem, only used by QTests.
  1170. @item id=@var{id}
  1171. Specifies identifier for the filesystem device
  1172. @item path=@var{path}
  1173. Specifies the export path for the file system device. Files under
  1174. this path will be available to the 9p client on the guest.
  1175. @item security_model=@var{security_model}
  1176. Specifies the security model to be used for this export path.
  1177. Supported security models are "passthrough", "mapped-xattr", "mapped-file" and "none".
  1178. In "passthrough" security model, files are stored using the same
  1179. credentials as they are created on the guest. This requires QEMU
  1180. to run as root. In "mapped-xattr" security model, some of the file
  1181. attributes like uid, gid, mode bits and link target are stored as
  1182. file attributes. For "mapped-file" these attributes are stored in the
  1183. hidden .virtfs_metadata directory. Directories exported by this security model cannot
  1184. interact with other unix tools. "none" security model is same as
  1185. passthrough except the sever won't report failures if it fails to
  1186. set file attributes like ownership. Security model is mandatory only
  1187. for local fsdriver. Other fsdrivers (like proxy) don't take security
  1188. model as a parameter.
  1189. @item writeout=@var{writeout}
  1190. This is an optional argument. The only supported value is "immediate".
  1191. This means that host page cache will be used to read and write data but
  1192. write notification will be sent to the guest only when the data has been
  1193. reported as written by the storage subsystem.
  1194. @item readonly
  1195. Enables exporting 9p share as a readonly mount for guests. By default
  1196. read-write access is given.
  1197. @item socket=@var{socket}
  1198. Enables proxy filesystem driver to use passed socket file for
  1199. communicating with virtfs-proxy-helper(1). Usually a helper like libvirt
  1200. will create socketpair and pass one of the fds as sock_fd.
  1201. @item sock_fd
  1202. Enables proxy filesystem driver to use passed 'sock_fd' as the socket
  1203. descriptor for interfacing with virtfs-proxy-helper(1).
  1204. @item fmode=@var{fmode}
  1205. Specifies the default mode for newly created files on the host. Works only
  1206. with security models "mapped-xattr" and "mapped-file".
  1207. @item dmode=@var{dmode}
  1208. Specifies the default mode for newly created directories on the host. Works
  1209. only with security models "mapped-xattr" and "mapped-file".
  1210. @item mount_tag=@var{mount_tag}
  1211. Specifies the tag name to be used by the guest to mount this export point.
  1212. @end table
  1213. ETEXI
  1214. DEF("virtfs_synth", 0, QEMU_OPTION_virtfs_synth,
  1215. "-virtfs_synth Create synthetic file system image\n",
  1216. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1217. STEXI
  1218. @item -virtfs_synth
  1219. @findex -virtfs_synth
  1220. Create synthetic file system image. Note that this option is now deprecated.
  1221. Please use @code{-fsdev synth} and @code{-device virtio-9p-...} instead.
  1222. ETEXI
  1223. DEF("iscsi", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_iscsi,
  1224. "-iscsi [user=user][,password=password]\n"
  1225. " [,header-digest=CRC32C|CR32C-NONE|NONE-CRC32C|NONE\n"
  1226. " [,initiator-name=initiator-iqn][,id=target-iqn]\n"
  1227. " [,timeout=timeout]\n"
  1228. " iSCSI session parameters\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1229. STEXI
  1230. @item -iscsi
  1231. @findex -iscsi
  1232. Configure iSCSI session parameters.
  1233. ETEXI
  1234. STEXI
  1235. @end table
  1236. ETEXI
  1237. DEFHEADING()
  1238. DEFHEADING(USB options:)
  1239. STEXI
  1240. @table @option
  1241. ETEXI
  1242. DEF("usb", 0, QEMU_OPTION_usb,
  1243. "-usb enable the USB driver (if it is not used by default yet)\n",
  1244. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1245. STEXI
  1246. @item -usb
  1247. @findex -usb
  1248. Enable the USB driver (if it is not used by default yet).
  1249. ETEXI
  1250. DEF("usbdevice", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_usbdevice,
  1251. "-usbdevice name add the host or guest USB device 'name'\n",
  1252. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1253. STEXI
  1254. @item -usbdevice @var{devname}
  1255. @findex -usbdevice
  1256. Add the USB device @var{devname}. Note that this option is deprecated,
  1257. please use @code{-device usb-...} instead. @xref{usb_devices}.
  1258. @table @option
  1259. @item mouse
  1260. Virtual Mouse. This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
  1261. @item tablet
  1262. Pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (like a touchscreen). This
  1263. means QEMU is able to report the mouse position without having to grab the
  1264. mouse. Also overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
  1265. @item braille
  1266. Braille device. This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real
  1267. or fake device.
  1268. @end table
  1269. ETEXI
  1270. STEXI
  1271. @end table
  1272. ETEXI
  1273. DEFHEADING()
  1274. DEFHEADING(Display options:)
  1275. STEXI
  1276. @table @option
  1277. ETEXI
  1278. DEF("display", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_display,
  1279. "-display spice-app[,gl=on|off]\n"
  1280. "-display sdl[,frame=on|off][,alt_grab=on|off][,ctrl_grab=on|off]\n"
  1281. " [,window_close=on|off][,gl=on|core|es|off]\n"
  1282. "-display gtk[,grab_on_hover=on|off][,gl=on|off]|\n"
  1283. "-display vnc=<display>[,<optargs>]\n"
  1284. "-display curses[,charset=<encoding>]\n"
  1285. "-display none\n"
  1286. "-display egl-headless[,rendernode=<file>]"
  1287. " select display type\n"
  1288. "The default display is equivalent to\n"
  1289. #if defined(CONFIG_GTK)
  1290. "\t\"-display gtk\"\n"
  1291. #elif defined(CONFIG_SDL)
  1292. "\t\"-display sdl\"\n"
  1293. #elif defined(CONFIG_COCOA)
  1294. "\t\"-display cocoa\"\n"
  1295. #elif defined(CONFIG_VNC)
  1296. "\t\"-vnc localhost:0,to=99,id=default\"\n"
  1297. #else
  1298. "\t\"-display none\"\n"
  1299. #endif
  1300. , QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1301. STEXI
  1302. @item -display @var{type}
  1303. @findex -display
  1304. Select type of display to use. This option is a replacement for the
  1305. old style -sdl/-curses/... options. Valid values for @var{type} are
  1306. @table @option
  1307. @item sdl
  1308. Display video output via SDL (usually in a separate graphics
  1309. window; see the SDL documentation for other possibilities).
  1310. @item curses
  1311. Display video output via curses. For graphics device models which
  1312. support a text mode, QEMU can display this output using a
  1313. curses/ncurses interface. Nothing is displayed when the graphics
  1314. device is in graphical mode or if the graphics device does not support
  1315. a text mode. Generally only the VGA device models support text mode.
  1316. The font charset used by the guest can be specified with the
  1317. @code{charset} option, for example @code{charset=CP850} for IBM CP850
  1318. encoding. The default is @code{CP437}.
  1319. @item none
  1320. Do not display video output. The guest will still see an emulated
  1321. graphics card, but its output will not be displayed to the QEMU
  1322. user. This option differs from the -nographic option in that it
  1323. only affects what is done with video output; -nographic also changes
  1324. the destination of the serial and parallel port data.
  1325. @item gtk
  1326. Display video output in a GTK window. This interface provides drop-down
  1327. menus and other UI elements to configure and control the VM during
  1328. runtime.
  1329. @item vnc
  1330. Start a VNC server on display <arg>
  1331. @item egl-headless
  1332. Offload all OpenGL operations to a local DRI device. For any graphical display,
  1333. this display needs to be paired with either VNC or SPICE displays.
  1334. @item spice-app
  1335. Start QEMU as a Spice server and launch the default Spice client
  1336. application. The Spice server will redirect the serial consoles and
  1337. QEMU monitors. (Since 4.0)
  1338. @end table
  1339. ETEXI
  1340. DEF("nographic", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nographic,
  1341. "-nographic disable graphical output and redirect serial I/Os to console\n",
  1342. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1343. STEXI
  1344. @item -nographic
  1345. @findex -nographic
  1346. Normally, if QEMU is compiled with graphical window support, it displays
  1347. output such as guest graphics, guest console, and the QEMU monitor in a
  1348. window. With this option, you can totally disable graphical output so
  1349. that QEMU is a simple command line application. The emulated serial port
  1350. is redirected on the console and muxed with the monitor (unless
  1351. redirected elsewhere explicitly). Therefore, you can still use QEMU to
  1352. debug a Linux kernel with a serial console. Use @key{C-a h} for help on
  1353. switching between the console and monitor.
  1354. ETEXI
  1355. DEF("curses", 0, QEMU_OPTION_curses,
  1356. "-curses shorthand for -display curses\n",
  1357. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1358. STEXI
  1359. @item -curses
  1360. @findex -curses
  1361. Normally, if QEMU is compiled with graphical window support, it displays
  1362. output such as guest graphics, guest console, and the QEMU monitor in a
  1363. window. With this option, QEMU can display the VGA output when in text
  1364. mode using a curses/ncurses interface. Nothing is displayed in graphical
  1365. mode.
  1366. ETEXI
  1367. DEF("alt-grab", 0, QEMU_OPTION_alt_grab,
  1368. "-alt-grab use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt)\n",
  1369. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1370. STEXI
  1371. @item -alt-grab
  1372. @findex -alt-grab
  1373. Use Ctrl-Alt-Shift to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt). Note that this also
  1374. affects the special keys (for fullscreen, monitor-mode switching, etc).
  1375. ETEXI
  1376. DEF("ctrl-grab", 0, QEMU_OPTION_ctrl_grab,
  1377. "-ctrl-grab use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt)\n",
  1378. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1379. STEXI
  1380. @item -ctrl-grab
  1381. @findex -ctrl-grab
  1382. Use Right-Ctrl to grab mouse (instead of Ctrl-Alt). Note that this also
  1383. affects the special keys (for fullscreen, monitor-mode switching, etc).
  1384. ETEXI
  1385. DEF("no-quit", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_quit,
  1386. "-no-quit disable SDL window close capability\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1387. STEXI
  1388. @item -no-quit
  1389. @findex -no-quit
  1390. Disable SDL window close capability.
  1391. ETEXI
  1392. DEF("sdl", 0, QEMU_OPTION_sdl,
  1393. "-sdl shorthand for -display sdl\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1394. STEXI
  1395. @item -sdl
  1396. @findex -sdl
  1397. Enable SDL.
  1398. ETEXI
  1399. DEF("spice", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_spice,
  1400. "-spice [port=port][,tls-port=secured-port][,x509-dir=<dir>]\n"
  1401. " [,x509-key-file=<file>][,x509-key-password=<file>]\n"
  1402. " [,x509-cert-file=<file>][,x509-cacert-file=<file>]\n"
  1403. " [,x509-dh-key-file=<file>][,addr=addr][,ipv4|ipv6|unix]\n"
  1404. " [,tls-ciphers=<list>]\n"
  1405. " [,tls-channel=[main|display|cursor|inputs|record|playback]]\n"
  1406. " [,plaintext-channel=[main|display|cursor|inputs|record|playback]]\n"
  1407. " [,sasl][,password=<secret>][,disable-ticketing]\n"
  1408. " [,image-compression=[auto_glz|auto_lz|quic|glz|lz|off]]\n"
  1409. " [,jpeg-wan-compression=[auto|never|always]]\n"
  1410. " [,zlib-glz-wan-compression=[auto|never|always]]\n"
  1411. " [,streaming-video=[off|all|filter]][,disable-copy-paste]\n"
  1412. " [,disable-agent-file-xfer][,agent-mouse=[on|off]]\n"
  1413. " [,playback-compression=[on|off]][,seamless-migration=[on|off]]\n"
  1414. " [,gl=[on|off]][,rendernode=<file>]\n"
  1415. " enable spice\n"
  1416. " at least one of {port, tls-port} is mandatory\n",
  1417. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1418. STEXI
  1419. @item -spice @var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]
  1420. @findex -spice
  1421. Enable the spice remote desktop protocol. Valid options are
  1422. @table @option
  1423. @item port=<nr>
  1424. Set the TCP port spice is listening on for plaintext channels.
  1425. @item addr=<addr>
  1426. Set the IP address spice is listening on. Default is any address.
  1427. @item ipv4
  1428. @itemx ipv6
  1429. @itemx unix
  1430. Force using the specified IP version.
  1431. @item password=<secret>
  1432. Set the password you need to authenticate.
  1433. @item sasl
  1434. Require that the client use SASL to authenticate with the spice.
  1435. The exact choice of authentication method used is controlled from the
  1436. system / user's SASL configuration file for the 'qemu' service. This
  1437. is typically found in /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf. If running QEMU as an
  1438. unprivileged user, an environment variable SASL_CONF_PATH can be used
  1439. to make it search alternate locations for the service config.
  1440. While some SASL auth methods can also provide data encryption (eg GSSAPI),
  1441. it is recommended that SASL always be combined with the 'tls' and
  1442. 'x509' settings to enable use of SSL and server certificates. This
  1443. ensures a data encryption preventing compromise of authentication
  1444. credentials.
  1445. @item disable-ticketing
  1446. Allow client connects without authentication.
  1447. @item disable-copy-paste
  1448. Disable copy paste between the client and the guest.
  1449. @item disable-agent-file-xfer
  1450. Disable spice-vdagent based file-xfer between the client and the guest.
  1451. @item tls-port=<nr>
  1452. Set the TCP port spice is listening on for encrypted channels.
  1453. @item x509-dir=<dir>
  1454. Set the x509 file directory. Expects same filenames as -vnc $display,x509=$dir
  1455. @item x509-key-file=<file>
  1456. @itemx x509-key-password=<file>
  1457. @itemx x509-cert-file=<file>
  1458. @itemx x509-cacert-file=<file>
  1459. @itemx x509-dh-key-file=<file>
  1460. The x509 file names can also be configured individually.
  1461. @item tls-ciphers=<list>
  1462. Specify which ciphers to use.
  1463. @item tls-channel=[main|display|cursor|inputs|record|playback]
  1464. @itemx plaintext-channel=[main|display|cursor|inputs|record|playback]
  1465. Force specific channel to be used with or without TLS encryption. The
  1466. options can be specified multiple times to configure multiple
  1467. channels. The special name "default" can be used to set the default
  1468. mode. For channels which are not explicitly forced into one mode the
  1469. spice client is allowed to pick tls/plaintext as he pleases.
  1470. @item image-compression=[auto_glz|auto_lz|quic|glz|lz|off]
  1471. Configure image compression (lossless).
  1472. Default is auto_glz.
  1473. @item jpeg-wan-compression=[auto|never|always]
  1474. @itemx zlib-glz-wan-compression=[auto|never|always]
  1475. Configure wan image compression (lossy for slow links).
  1476. Default is auto.
  1477. @item streaming-video=[off|all|filter]
  1478. Configure video stream detection. Default is off.
  1479. @item agent-mouse=[on|off]
  1480. Enable/disable passing mouse events via vdagent. Default is on.
  1481. @item playback-compression=[on|off]
  1482. Enable/disable audio stream compression (using celt 0.5.1). Default is on.
  1483. @item seamless-migration=[on|off]
  1484. Enable/disable spice seamless migration. Default is off.
  1485. @item gl=[on|off]
  1486. Enable/disable OpenGL context. Default is off.
  1487. @item rendernode=<file>
  1488. DRM render node for OpenGL rendering. If not specified, it will pick
  1489. the first available. (Since 2.9)
  1490. @end table
  1491. ETEXI
  1492. DEF("portrait", 0, QEMU_OPTION_portrait,
  1493. "-portrait rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD)\n",
  1494. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1495. STEXI
  1496. @item -portrait
  1497. @findex -portrait
  1498. Rotate graphical output 90 deg left (only PXA LCD).
  1499. ETEXI
  1500. DEF("rotate", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_rotate,
  1501. "-rotate <deg> rotate graphical output some deg left (only PXA LCD)\n",
  1502. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1503. STEXI
  1504. @item -rotate @var{deg}
  1505. @findex -rotate
  1506. Rotate graphical output some deg left (only PXA LCD).
  1507. ETEXI
  1508. DEF("vga", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_vga,
  1509. "-vga [std|cirrus|vmware|qxl|xenfb|tcx|cg3|virtio|none]\n"
  1510. " select video card type\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1511. STEXI
  1512. @item -vga @var{type}
  1513. @findex -vga
  1514. Select type of VGA card to emulate. Valid values for @var{type} are
  1515. @table @option
  1516. @item cirrus
  1517. Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video card. All Windows versions starting from
  1518. Windows 95 should recognize and use this graphic card. For optimal
  1519. performances, use 16 bit color depth in the guest and the host OS.
  1520. (This card was the default before QEMU 2.2)
  1521. @item std
  1522. Standard VGA card with Bochs VBE extensions. If your guest OS
  1523. supports the VESA 2.0 VBE extensions (e.g. Windows XP) and if you want
  1524. to use high resolution modes (>= 1280x1024x16) then you should use
  1525. this option. (This card is the default since QEMU 2.2)
  1526. @item vmware
  1527. VMWare SVGA-II compatible adapter. Use it if you have sufficiently
  1528. recent XFree86/XOrg server or Windows guest with a driver for this
  1529. card.
  1530. @item qxl
  1531. QXL paravirtual graphic card. It is VGA compatible (including VESA
  1532. 2.0 VBE support). Works best with qxl guest drivers installed though.
  1533. Recommended choice when using the spice protocol.
  1534. @item tcx
  1535. (sun4m only) Sun TCX framebuffer. This is the default framebuffer for
  1536. sun4m machines and offers both 8-bit and 24-bit colour depths at a
  1537. fixed resolution of 1024x768.
  1538. @item cg3
  1539. (sun4m only) Sun cgthree framebuffer. This is a simple 8-bit framebuffer
  1540. for sun4m machines available in both 1024x768 (OpenBIOS) and 1152x900 (OBP)
  1541. resolutions aimed at people wishing to run older Solaris versions.
  1542. @item virtio
  1543. Virtio VGA card.
  1544. @item none
  1545. Disable VGA card.
  1546. @end table
  1547. ETEXI
  1548. DEF("full-screen", 0, QEMU_OPTION_full_screen,
  1549. "-full-screen start in full screen\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1550. STEXI
  1551. @item -full-screen
  1552. @findex -full-screen
  1553. Start in full screen.
  1554. ETEXI
  1555. DEF("g", 1, QEMU_OPTION_g ,
  1556. "-g WxH[xDEPTH] Set the initial graphical resolution and depth\n",
  1558. STEXI
  1559. @item -g @var{width}x@var{height}[x@var{depth}]
  1560. @findex -g
  1561. Set the initial graphical resolution and depth (PPC, SPARC only).
  1562. ETEXI
  1563. DEF("vnc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_vnc ,
  1564. "-vnc <display> shorthand for -display vnc=<display>\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1565. STEXI
  1566. @item -vnc @var{display}[,@var{option}[,@var{option}[,...]]]
  1567. @findex -vnc
  1568. Normally, if QEMU is compiled with graphical window support, it displays
  1569. output such as guest graphics, guest console, and the QEMU monitor in a
  1570. window. With this option, you can have QEMU listen on VNC display
  1571. @var{display} and redirect the VGA display over the VNC session. It is
  1572. very useful to enable the usb tablet device when using this option
  1573. (option @option{-device usb-tablet}). When using the VNC display, you
  1574. must use the @option{-k} parameter to set the keyboard layout if you are
  1575. not using en-us. Valid syntax for the @var{display} is
  1576. @table @option
  1577. @item to=@var{L}
  1578. With this option, QEMU will try next available VNC @var{display}s, until the
  1579. number @var{L}, if the origianlly defined "-vnc @var{display}" is not
  1580. available, e.g. port 5900+@var{display} is already used by another
  1581. application. By default, to=0.
  1582. @item @var{host}:@var{d}
  1583. TCP connections will only be allowed from @var{host} on display @var{d}.
  1584. By convention the TCP port is 5900+@var{d}. Optionally, @var{host} can
  1585. be omitted in which case the server will accept connections from any host.
  1586. @item unix:@var{path}
  1587. Connections will be allowed over UNIX domain sockets where @var{path} is the
  1588. location of a unix socket to listen for connections on.
  1589. @item none
  1590. VNC is initialized but not started. The monitor @code{change} command
  1591. can be used to later start the VNC server.
  1592. @end table
  1593. Following the @var{display} value there may be one or more @var{option} flags
  1594. separated by commas. Valid options are
  1595. @table @option
  1596. @item reverse
  1597. Connect to a listening VNC client via a ``reverse'' connection. The
  1598. client is specified by the @var{display}. For reverse network
  1599. connections (@var{host}:@var{d},@code{reverse}), the @var{d} argument
  1600. is a TCP port number, not a display number.
  1601. @item websocket
  1602. Opens an additional TCP listening port dedicated to VNC Websocket connections.
  1603. If a bare @var{websocket} option is given, the Websocket port is
  1604. 5700+@var{display}. An alternative port can be specified with the
  1605. syntax @code{websocket}=@var{port}.
  1606. If @var{host} is specified connections will only be allowed from this host.
  1607. It is possible to control the websocket listen address independently, using
  1608. the syntax @code{websocket}=@var{host}:@var{port}.
  1609. If no TLS credentials are provided, the websocket connection runs in
  1610. unencrypted mode. If TLS credentials are provided, the websocket connection
  1611. requires encrypted client connections.
  1612. @item password
  1613. Require that password based authentication is used for client connections.
  1614. The password must be set separately using the @code{set_password} command in
  1615. the @ref{pcsys_monitor}. The syntax to change your password is:
  1616. @code{set_password <protocol> <password>} where <protocol> could be either
  1617. "vnc" or "spice".
  1618. If you would like to change <protocol> password expiration, you should use
  1619. @code{expire_password <protocol> <expiration-time>} where expiration time could
  1620. be one of the following options: now, never, +seconds or UNIX time of
  1621. expiration, e.g. +60 to make password expire in 60 seconds, or 1335196800
  1622. to make password expire on "Mon Apr 23 12:00:00 EDT 2012" (UNIX time for this
  1623. date and time).
  1624. You can also use keywords "now" or "never" for the expiration time to
  1625. allow <protocol> password to expire immediately or never expire.
  1626. @item tls-creds=@var{ID}
  1627. Provides the ID of a set of TLS credentials to use to secure the
  1628. VNC server. They will apply to both the normal VNC server socket
  1629. and the websocket socket (if enabled). Setting TLS credentials
  1630. will cause the VNC server socket to enable the VeNCrypt auth
  1631. mechanism. The credentials should have been previously created
  1632. using the @option{-object tls-creds} argument.
  1633. @item tls-authz=@var{ID}
  1634. Provides the ID of the QAuthZ authorization object against which
  1635. the client's x509 distinguished name will validated. This object is
  1636. only resolved at time of use, so can be deleted and recreated on the
  1637. fly while the VNC server is active. If missing, it will default
  1638. to denying access.
  1639. @item sasl
  1640. Require that the client use SASL to authenticate with the VNC server.
  1641. The exact choice of authentication method used is controlled from the
  1642. system / user's SASL configuration file for the 'qemu' service. This
  1643. is typically found in /etc/sasl2/qemu.conf. If running QEMU as an
  1644. unprivileged user, an environment variable SASL_CONF_PATH can be used
  1645. to make it search alternate locations for the service config.
  1646. While some SASL auth methods can also provide data encryption (eg GSSAPI),
  1647. it is recommended that SASL always be combined with the 'tls' and
  1648. 'x509' settings to enable use of SSL and server certificates. This
  1649. ensures a data encryption preventing compromise of authentication
  1650. credentials. See the @ref{vnc_security} section for details on using
  1651. SASL authentication.
  1652. @item sasl-authz=@var{ID}
  1653. Provides the ID of the QAuthZ authorization object against which
  1654. the client's SASL username will validated. This object is
  1655. only resolved at time of use, so can be deleted and recreated on the
  1656. fly while the VNC server is active. If missing, it will default
  1657. to denying access.
  1658. @item acl
  1659. Legacy method for enabling authorization of clients against the
  1660. x509 distinguished name and SASL username. It results in the creation
  1661. of two @code{authz-list} objects with IDs of @code{vnc.username} and
  1662. @code{vnc.x509dname}. The rules for these objects must be configured
  1663. with the HMP ACL commands.
  1664. This option is deprecated and should no longer be used. The new
  1665. @option{sasl-authz} and @option{tls-authz} options are a
  1666. replacement.
  1667. @item lossy
  1668. Enable lossy compression methods (gradient, JPEG, ...). If this
  1669. option is set, VNC client may receive lossy framebuffer updates
  1670. depending on its encoding settings. Enabling this option can save
  1671. a lot of bandwidth at the expense of quality.
  1672. @item non-adaptive
  1673. Disable adaptive encodings. Adaptive encodings are enabled by default.
  1674. An adaptive encoding will try to detect frequently updated screen regions,
  1675. and send updates in these regions using a lossy encoding (like JPEG).
  1676. This can be really helpful to save bandwidth when playing videos. Disabling
  1677. adaptive encodings restores the original static behavior of encodings
  1678. like Tight.
  1679. @item share=[allow-exclusive|force-shared|ignore]
  1680. Set display sharing policy. 'allow-exclusive' allows clients to ask
  1681. for exclusive access. As suggested by the rfb spec this is
  1682. implemented by dropping other connections. Connecting multiple
  1683. clients in parallel requires all clients asking for a shared session
  1684. (vncviewer: -shared switch). This is the default. 'force-shared'
  1685. disables exclusive client access. Useful for shared desktop sessions,
  1686. where you don't want someone forgetting specify -shared disconnect
  1687. everybody else. 'ignore' completely ignores the shared flag and
  1688. allows everybody connect unconditionally. Doesn't conform to the rfb
  1689. spec but is traditional QEMU behavior.
  1690. @item key-delay-ms
  1691. Set keyboard delay, for key down and key up events, in milliseconds.
  1692. Default is 10. Keyboards are low-bandwidth devices, so this slowdown
  1693. can help the device and guest to keep up and not lose events in case
  1694. events are arriving in bulk. Possible causes for the latter are flaky
  1695. network connections, or scripts for automated testing.
  1696. @end table
  1697. ETEXI
  1698. STEXI
  1699. @end table
  1700. ETEXI
  1702. ARCHHEADING(i386 target only:, QEMU_ARCH_I386)
  1703. STEXI
  1704. @table @option
  1705. ETEXI
  1706. DEF("win2k-hack", 0, QEMU_OPTION_win2k_hack,
  1707. "-win2k-hack use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug\n",
  1708. QEMU_ARCH_I386)
  1709. STEXI
  1710. @item -win2k-hack
  1711. @findex -win2k-hack
  1712. Use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug. After
  1713. Windows 2000 is installed, you no longer need this option (this option
  1714. slows down the IDE transfers).
  1715. ETEXI
  1716. DEF("no-fd-bootchk", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_fd_bootchk,
  1717. "-no-fd-bootchk disable boot signature checking for floppy disks\n",
  1718. QEMU_ARCH_I386)
  1719. STEXI
  1720. @item -no-fd-bootchk
  1721. @findex -no-fd-bootchk
  1722. Disable boot signature checking for floppy disks in BIOS. May
  1723. be needed to boot from old floppy disks.
  1724. ETEXI
  1725. DEF("no-acpi", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_acpi,
  1726. "-no-acpi disable ACPI\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386 | QEMU_ARCH_ARM)
  1727. STEXI
  1728. @item -no-acpi
  1729. @findex -no-acpi
  1730. Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support. Use
  1731. it if your guest OS complains about ACPI problems (PC target machine
  1732. only).
  1733. ETEXI
  1734. DEF("no-hpet", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_hpet,
  1735. "-no-hpet disable HPET\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
  1736. STEXI
  1737. @item -no-hpet
  1738. @findex -no-hpet
  1739. Disable HPET support.
  1740. ETEXI
  1741. DEF("acpitable", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_acpitable,
  1742. "-acpitable [sig=str][,rev=n][,oem_id=str][,oem_table_id=str][,oem_rev=n][,asl_compiler_id=str][,asl_compiler_rev=n][,{data|file}=file1[:file2]...]\n"
  1743. " ACPI table description\n", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
  1744. STEXI
  1745. @item -acpitable [sig=@var{str}][,rev=@var{n}][,oem_id=@var{str}][,oem_table_id=@var{str}][,oem_rev=@var{n}] [,asl_compiler_id=@var{str}][,asl_compiler_rev=@var{n}][,data=@var{file1}[:@var{file2}]...]
  1746. @findex -acpitable
  1747. Add ACPI table with specified header fields and context from specified files.
  1748. For file=, take whole ACPI table from the specified files, including all
  1749. ACPI headers (possible overridden by other options).
  1750. For data=, only data
  1751. portion of the table is used, all header information is specified in the
  1752. command line.
  1753. If a SLIC table is supplied to QEMU, then the SLIC's oem_id and oem_table_id
  1754. fields will override the same in the RSDT and the FADT (a.k.a. FACP), in order
  1755. to ensure the field matches required by the Microsoft SLIC spec and the ACPI
  1756. spec.
  1757. ETEXI
  1758. DEF("smbios", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_smbios,
  1759. "-smbios file=binary\n"
  1760. " load SMBIOS entry from binary file\n"
  1761. "-smbios type=0[,vendor=str][,version=str][,date=str][,release=%d.%d]\n"
  1762. " [,uefi=on|off]\n"
  1763. " specify SMBIOS type 0 fields\n"
  1764. "-smbios type=1[,manufacturer=str][,product=str][,version=str][,serial=str]\n"
  1765. " [,uuid=uuid][,sku=str][,family=str]\n"
  1766. " specify SMBIOS type 1 fields\n"
  1767. "-smbios type=2[,manufacturer=str][,product=str][,version=str][,serial=str]\n"
  1768. " [,asset=str][,location=str]\n"
  1769. " specify SMBIOS type 2 fields\n"
  1770. "-smbios type=3[,manufacturer=str][,version=str][,serial=str][,asset=str]\n"
  1771. " [,sku=str]\n"
  1772. " specify SMBIOS type 3 fields\n"
  1773. "-smbios type=4[,sock_pfx=str][,manufacturer=str][,version=str][,serial=str]\n"
  1774. " [,asset=str][,part=str]\n"
  1775. " specify SMBIOS type 4 fields\n"
  1776. "-smbios type=17[,loc_pfx=str][,bank=str][,manufacturer=str][,serial=str]\n"
  1777. " [,asset=str][,part=str][,speed=%d]\n"
  1778. " specify SMBIOS type 17 fields\n",
  1780. STEXI
  1781. @item -smbios file=@var{binary}
  1782. @findex -smbios
  1783. Load SMBIOS entry from binary file.
  1784. @item -smbios type=0[,vendor=@var{str}][,version=@var{str}][,date=@var{str}][,release=@var{%d.%d}][,uefi=on|off]
  1785. Specify SMBIOS type 0 fields
  1786. @item -smbios type=1[,manufacturer=@var{str}][,product=@var{str}][,version=@var{str}][,serial=@var{str}][,uuid=@var{uuid}][,sku=@var{str}][,family=@var{str}]
  1787. Specify SMBIOS type 1 fields
  1788. @item -smbios type=2[,manufacturer=@var{str}][,product=@var{str}][,version=@var{str}][,serial=@var{str}][,asset=@var{str}][,location=@var{str}]
  1789. Specify SMBIOS type 2 fields
  1790. @item -smbios type=3[,manufacturer=@var{str}][,version=@var{str}][,serial=@var{str}][,asset=@var{str}][,sku=@var{str}]
  1791. Specify SMBIOS type 3 fields
  1792. @item -smbios type=4[,sock_pfx=@var{str}][,manufacturer=@var{str}][,version=@var{str}][,serial=@var{str}][,asset=@var{str}][,part=@var{str}]
  1793. Specify SMBIOS type 4 fields
  1794. @item -smbios type=17[,loc_pfx=@var{str}][,bank=@var{str}][,manufacturer=@var{str}][,serial=@var{str}][,asset=@var{str}][,part=@var{str}][,speed=@var{%d}]
  1795. Specify SMBIOS type 17 fields
  1796. ETEXI
  1797. STEXI
  1798. @end table
  1799. ETEXI
  1800. DEFHEADING()
  1801. DEFHEADING(Network options:)
  1802. STEXI
  1803. @table @option
  1804. ETEXI
  1805. DEF("netdev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_netdev,
  1806. #ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
  1807. "-netdev user,id=str[,ipv4[=on|off]][,net=addr[/mask]][,host=addr]\n"
  1808. " [,ipv6[=on|off]][,ipv6-net=addr[/int]][,ipv6-host=addr]\n"
  1809. " [,restrict=on|off][,hostname=host][,dhcpstart=addr]\n"
  1810. " [,dns=addr][,ipv6-dns=addr][,dnssearch=domain][,domainname=domain]\n"
  1811. " [,tftp=dir][,tftp-server-name=name][,bootfile=f][,hostfwd=rule][,guestfwd=rule]"
  1812. #ifndef _WIN32
  1813. "[,smb=dir[,smbserver=addr]]\n"
  1814. #endif
  1815. " configure a user mode network backend with ID 'str',\n"
  1816. " its DHCP server and optional services\n"
  1817. #endif
  1818. #ifdef _WIN32
  1819. "-netdev tap,id=str,ifname=name\n"
  1820. " configure a host TAP network backend with ID 'str'\n"
  1821. #else
  1822. "-netdev tap,id=str[,fd=h][,fds=x:y:...:z][,ifname=name][,script=file][,downscript=dfile]\n"
  1823. " [,br=bridge][,helper=helper][,sndbuf=nbytes][,vnet_hdr=on|off][,vhost=on|off]\n"
  1824. " [,vhostfd=h][,vhostfds=x:y:...:z][,vhostforce=on|off][,queues=n]\n"
  1825. " [,poll-us=n]\n"
  1826. " configure a host TAP network backend with ID 'str'\n"
  1827. " connected to a bridge (default=" DEFAULT_BRIDGE_INTERFACE ")\n"
  1828. " use network scripts 'file' (default=" DEFAULT_NETWORK_SCRIPT ")\n"
  1829. " to configure it and 'dfile' (default=" DEFAULT_NETWORK_DOWN_SCRIPT ")\n"
  1830. " to deconfigure it\n"
  1831. " use '[down]script=no' to disable script execution\n"
  1832. " use network helper 'helper' (default=" DEFAULT_BRIDGE_HELPER ") to\n"
  1833. " configure it\n"
  1834. " use 'fd=h' to connect to an already opened TAP interface\n"
  1835. " use 'fds=x:y:...:z' to connect to already opened multiqueue capable TAP interfaces\n"
  1836. " use 'sndbuf=nbytes' to limit the size of the send buffer (the\n"
  1837. " default is disabled 'sndbuf=0' to enable flow control set 'sndbuf=1048576')\n"
  1838. " use vnet_hdr=off to avoid enabling the IFF_VNET_HDR tap flag\n"
  1839. " use vnet_hdr=on to make the lack of IFF_VNET_HDR support an error condition\n"
  1840. " use vhost=on to enable experimental in kernel accelerator\n"
  1841. " (only has effect for virtio guests which use MSIX)\n"
  1842. " use vhostforce=on to force vhost on for non-MSIX virtio guests\n"
  1843. " use 'vhostfd=h' to connect to an already opened vhost net device\n"
  1844. " use 'vhostfds=x:y:...:z to connect to multiple already opened vhost net devices\n"
  1845. " use 'queues=n' to specify the number of queues to be created for multiqueue TAP\n"
  1846. " use 'poll-us=n' to speciy the maximum number of microseconds that could be\n"
  1847. " spent on busy polling for vhost net\n"
  1848. "-netdev bridge,id=str[,br=bridge][,helper=helper]\n"
  1849. " configure a host TAP network backend with ID 'str' that is\n"
  1850. " connected to a bridge (default=" DEFAULT_BRIDGE_INTERFACE ")\n"
  1851. " using the program 'helper (default=" DEFAULT_BRIDGE_HELPER ")\n"
  1852. #endif
  1853. #ifdef __linux__
  1854. "-netdev l2tpv3,id=str,src=srcaddr,dst=dstaddr[,srcport=srcport][,dstport=dstport]\n"
  1855. " [,rxsession=rxsession],txsession=txsession[,ipv6=on/off][,udp=on/off]\n"
  1856. " [,cookie64=on/off][,counter][,pincounter][,txcookie=txcookie]\n"
  1857. " [,rxcookie=rxcookie][,offset=offset]\n"
  1858. " configure a network backend with ID 'str' connected to\n"
  1859. " an Ethernet over L2TPv3 pseudowire.\n"
  1860. " Linux kernel 3.3+ as well as most routers can talk\n"
  1861. " L2TPv3. This transport allows connecting a VM to a VM,\n"
  1862. " VM to a router and even VM to Host. It is a nearly-universal\n"
  1863. " standard (RFC3391). Note - this implementation uses static\n"
  1864. " pre-configured tunnels (same as the Linux kernel).\n"
  1865. " use 'src=' to specify source address\n"
  1866. " use 'dst=' to specify destination address\n"
  1867. " use 'udp=on' to specify udp encapsulation\n"
  1868. " use 'srcport=' to specify source udp port\n"
  1869. " use 'dstport=' to specify destination udp port\n"
  1870. " use 'ipv6=on' to force v6\n"
  1871. " L2TPv3 uses cookies to prevent misconfiguration as\n"
  1872. " well as a weak security measure\n"
  1873. " use 'rxcookie=0x012345678' to specify a rxcookie\n"
  1874. " use 'txcookie=0x012345678' to specify a txcookie\n"
  1875. " use 'cookie64=on' to set cookie size to 64 bit, otherwise 32\n"
  1876. " use 'counter=off' to force a 'cut-down' L2TPv3 with no counter\n"
  1877. " use 'pincounter=on' to work around broken counter handling in peer\n"
  1878. " use 'offset=X' to add an extra offset between header and data\n"
  1879. #endif
  1880. "-netdev socket,id=str[,fd=h][,listen=[host]:port][,connect=host:port]\n"
  1881. " configure a network backend to connect to another network\n"
  1882. " using a socket connection\n"
  1883. "-netdev socket,id=str[,fd=h][,mcast=maddr:port[,localaddr=addr]]\n"
  1884. " configure a network backend to connect to a multicast maddr and port\n"
  1885. " use 'localaddr=addr' to specify the host address to send packets from\n"
  1886. "-netdev socket,id=str[,fd=h][,udp=host:port][,localaddr=host:port]\n"
  1887. " configure a network backend to connect to another network\n"
  1888. " using an UDP tunnel\n"
  1889. #ifdef CONFIG_VDE
  1890. "-netdev vde,id=str[,sock=socketpath][,port=n][,group=groupname][,mode=octalmode]\n"
  1891. " configure a network backend to connect to port 'n' of a vde switch\n"
  1892. " running on host and listening for incoming connections on 'socketpath'.\n"
  1893. " Use group 'groupname' and mode 'octalmode' to change default\n"
  1894. " ownership and permissions for communication port.\n"
  1895. #endif
  1896. #ifdef CONFIG_NETMAP
  1897. "-netdev netmap,id=str,ifname=name[,devname=nmname]\n"
  1898. " attach to the existing netmap-enabled network interface 'name', or to a\n"
  1899. " VALE port (created on the fly) called 'name' ('nmname' is name of the \n"
  1900. " netmap device, defaults to '/dev/netmap')\n"
  1901. #endif
  1902. #ifdef CONFIG_POSIX
  1903. "-netdev vhost-user,id=str,chardev=dev[,vhostforce=on|off]\n"
  1904. " configure a vhost-user network, backed by a chardev 'dev'\n"
  1905. #endif
  1906. "-netdev hubport,id=str,hubid=n[,netdev=nd]\n"
  1907. " configure a hub port on the hub with ID 'n'\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1908. DEF("nic", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_nic,
  1909. "-nic [tap|bridge|"
  1910. #ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
  1911. "user|"
  1912. #endif
  1913. #ifdef __linux__
  1914. "l2tpv3|"
  1915. #endif
  1916. #ifdef CONFIG_VDE
  1917. "vde|"
  1918. #endif
  1919. #ifdef CONFIG_NETMAP
  1920. "netmap|"
  1921. #endif
  1922. #ifdef CONFIG_POSIX
  1923. "vhost-user|"
  1924. #endif
  1925. "socket][,option][,...][mac=macaddr]\n"
  1926. " initialize an on-board / default host NIC (using MAC address\n"
  1927. " macaddr) and connect it to the given host network backend\n"
  1928. "-nic none use it alone to have zero network devices (the default is to\n"
  1929. " provided a 'user' network connection)\n",
  1930. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1931. DEF("net", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_net,
  1932. "-net nic[,macaddr=mac][,model=type][,name=str][,addr=str][,vectors=v]\n"
  1933. " configure or create an on-board (or machine default) NIC and\n"
  1934. " connect it to hub 0 (please use -nic unless you need a hub)\n"
  1935. "-net ["
  1936. #ifdef CONFIG_SLIRP
  1937. "user|"
  1938. #endif
  1939. "tap|"
  1940. "bridge|"
  1941. #ifdef CONFIG_VDE
  1942. "vde|"
  1943. #endif
  1944. #ifdef CONFIG_NETMAP
  1945. "netmap|"
  1946. #endif
  1947. "socket][,option][,option][,...]\n"
  1948. " old way to initialize a host network interface\n"
  1949. " (use the -netdev option if possible instead)\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  1950. STEXI
  1951. @item -nic [tap|bridge|user|l2tpv3|vde|netmap|vhost-user|socket][,...][,mac=macaddr][,model=mn]
  1952. @findex -nic
  1953. This option is a shortcut for configuring both the on-board (default) guest
  1954. NIC hardware and the host network backend in one go. The host backend options
  1955. are the same as with the corresponding @option{-netdev} options below.
  1956. The guest NIC model can be set with @option{model=@var{modelname}}.
  1957. Use @option{model=help} to list the available device types.
  1958. The hardware MAC address can be set with @option{mac=@var{macaddr}}.
  1959. The following two example do exactly the same, to show how @option{-nic} can
  1960. be used to shorten the command line length (note that the e1000 is the default
  1961. on i386, so the @option{model=e1000} parameter could even be omitted here, too):
  1962. @example
  1963. qemu-system-i386 -netdev user,id=n1,ipv6=off -device e1000,netdev=n1,mac=52:54:98:76:54:32
  1964. qemu-system-i386 -nic user,ipv6=off,model=e1000,mac=52:54:98:76:54:32
  1965. @end example
  1966. @item -nic none
  1967. Indicate that no network devices should be configured. It is used to override
  1968. the default configuration (default NIC with ``user'' host network backend)
  1969. which is activated if no other networking options are provided.
  1970. @item -netdev user,id=@var{id}[,@var{option}][,@var{option}][,...]
  1971. @findex -netdev
  1972. Configure user mode host network backend which requires no administrator
  1973. privilege to run. Valid options are:
  1974. @table @option
  1975. @item id=@var{id}
  1976. Assign symbolic name for use in monitor commands.
  1977. @item ipv4=on|off and ipv6=on|off
  1978. Specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be enabled. If neither is specified
  1979. both protocols are enabled.
  1980. @item net=@var{addr}[/@var{mask}]
  1981. Set IP network address the guest will see. Optionally specify the netmask,
  1982. either in the form a.b.c.d or as number of valid top-most bits. Default is
  1984. @item host=@var{addr}
  1985. Specify the guest-visible address of the host. Default is the 2nd IP in the
  1986. guest network, i.e. x.x.x.2.
  1987. @item ipv6-net=@var{addr}[/@var{int}]
  1988. Set IPv6 network address the guest will see (default is fec0::/64). The
  1989. network prefix is given in the usual hexadecimal IPv6 address
  1990. notation. The prefix size is optional, and is given as the number of
  1991. valid top-most bits (default is 64).
  1992. @item ipv6-host=@var{addr}
  1993. Specify the guest-visible IPv6 address of the host. Default is the 2nd IPv6 in
  1994. the guest network, i.e. xxxx::2.
  1995. @item restrict=on|off
  1996. If this option is enabled, the guest will be isolated, i.e. it will not be
  1997. able to contact the host and no guest IP packets will be routed over the host
  1998. to the outside. This option does not affect any explicitly set forwarding rules.
  1999. @item hostname=@var{name}
  2000. Specifies the client hostname reported by the built-in DHCP server.
  2001. @item dhcpstart=@var{addr}
  2002. Specify the first of the 16 IPs the built-in DHCP server can assign. Default
  2003. is the 15th to 31st IP in the guest network, i.e. x.x.x.15 to x.x.x.31.
  2004. @item dns=@var{addr}
  2005. Specify the guest-visible address of the virtual nameserver. The address must
  2006. be different from the host address. Default is the 3rd IP in the guest network,
  2007. i.e. x.x.x.3.
  2008. @item ipv6-dns=@var{addr}
  2009. Specify the guest-visible address of the IPv6 virtual nameserver. The address
  2010. must be different from the host address. Default is the 3rd IP in the guest
  2011. network, i.e. xxxx::3.
  2012. @item dnssearch=@var{domain}
  2013. Provides an entry for the domain-search list sent by the built-in
  2014. DHCP server. More than one domain suffix can be transmitted by specifying
  2015. this option multiple times. If supported, this will cause the guest to
  2016. automatically try to append the given domain suffix(es) in case a domain name
  2017. can not be resolved.
  2018. Example:
  2019. @example
  2020. qemu-system-i386 -nic user,,
  2021. @end example
  2022. @item domainname=@var{domain}
  2023. Specifies the client domain name reported by the built-in DHCP server.
  2024. @item tftp=@var{dir}
  2025. When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in TFTP
  2026. server. The files in @var{dir} will be exposed as the root of a TFTP server.
  2027. The TFTP client on the guest must be configured in binary mode (use the command
  2028. @code{bin} of the Unix TFTP client).
  2029. @item tftp-server-name=@var{name}
  2030. In BOOTP reply, broadcast @var{name} as the "TFTP server name" (RFC2132 option
  2031. 66). This can be used to advise the guest to load boot files or configurations
  2032. from a different server than the host address.
  2033. @item bootfile=@var{file}
  2034. When using the user mode network stack, broadcast @var{file} as the BOOTP
  2035. filename. In conjunction with @option{tftp}, this can be used to network boot
  2036. a guest from a local directory.
  2037. Example (using pxelinux):
  2038. @example
  2039. qemu-system-i386 -hda linux.img -boot n -device e1000,netdev=n1 \
  2040. -netdev user,id=n1,tftp=/path/to/tftp/files,bootfile=/pxelinux.0
  2041. @end example
  2042. @item smb=@var{dir}[,smbserver=@var{addr}]
  2043. When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in SMB
  2044. server so that Windows OSes can access to the host files in @file{@var{dir}}
  2045. transparently. The IP address of the SMB server can be set to @var{addr}. By
  2046. default the 4th IP in the guest network is used, i.e. x.x.x.4.
  2047. In the guest Windows OS, the line:
  2048. @example
  2049. smbserver
  2050. @end example
  2051. must be added in the file @file{C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS} (for windows 9x/Me)
  2052. or @file{C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC\LMHOSTS} (Windows NT/2000).
  2053. Then @file{@var{dir}} can be accessed in @file{\\smbserver\qemu}.
  2054. Note that a SAMBA server must be installed on the host OS.
  2055. @item hostfwd=[tcp|udp]:[@var{hostaddr}]:@var{hostport}-[@var{guestaddr}]:@var{guestport}
  2056. Redirect incoming TCP or UDP connections to the host port @var{hostport} to
  2057. the guest IP address @var{guestaddr} on guest port @var{guestport}. If
  2058. @var{guestaddr} is not specified, its value is x.x.x.15 (default first address
  2059. given by the built-in DHCP server). By specifying @var{hostaddr}, the rule can
  2060. be bound to a specific host interface. If no connection type is set, TCP is
  2061. used. This option can be given multiple times.
  2062. For example, to redirect host X11 connection from screen 1 to guest
  2063. screen 0, use the following:
  2064. @example
  2065. # on the host
  2066. qemu-system-i386 -nic user,hostfwd=tcp:
  2067. # this host xterm should open in the guest X11 server
  2068. xterm -display :1
  2069. @end example
  2070. To redirect telnet connections from host port 5555 to telnet port on
  2071. the guest, use the following:
  2072. @example
  2073. # on the host
  2074. qemu-system-i386 -nic user,hostfwd=tcp::5555-:23
  2075. telnet localhost 5555
  2076. @end example
  2077. Then when you use on the host @code{telnet localhost 5555}, you
  2078. connect to the guest telnet server.
  2079. @item guestfwd=[tcp]:@var{server}:@var{port}-@var{dev}
  2080. @itemx guestfwd=[tcp]:@var{server}:@var{port}-@var{cmd:command}
  2081. Forward guest TCP connections to the IP address @var{server} on port @var{port}
  2082. to the character device @var{dev} or to a program executed by @var{cmd:command}
  2083. which gets spawned for each connection. This option can be given multiple times.
  2084. You can either use a chardev directly and have that one used throughout QEMU's
  2085. lifetime, like in the following example:
  2086. @example
  2087. # open on bootup, connect to it whenever
  2088. # the guest accesses it
  2089. qemu-system-i386 -nic user,guestfwd=tcp:
  2090. @end example
  2091. Or you can execute a command on every TCP connection established by the guest,
  2092. so that QEMU behaves similar to an inetd process for that virtual server:
  2093. @example
  2094. # call "netcat 4321" on every TCP connection to
  2095. # and connect the TCP stream to its stdin/stdout
  2096. qemu-system-i386 -nic 'user,id=n1,guestfwd=tcp: 4321'
  2097. @end example
  2098. @end table
  2099. @item -netdev tap,id=@var{id}[,fd=@var{h}][,ifname=@var{name}][,script=@var{file}][,downscript=@var{dfile}][,br=@var{bridge}][,helper=@var{helper}]
  2100. Configure a host TAP network backend with ID @var{id}.
  2101. Use the network script @var{file} to configure it and the network script
  2102. @var{dfile} to deconfigure it. If @var{name} is not provided, the OS
  2103. automatically provides one. The default network configure script is
  2104. @file{/etc/qemu-ifup} and the default network deconfigure script is
  2105. @file{/etc/qemu-ifdown}. Use @option{script=no} or @option{downscript=no}
  2106. to disable script execution.
  2107. If running QEMU as an unprivileged user, use the network helper
  2108. @var{helper} to configure the TAP interface and attach it to the bridge.
  2109. The default network helper executable is @file{/path/to/qemu-bridge-helper}
  2110. and the default bridge device is @file{br0}.
  2111. @option{fd}=@var{h} can be used to specify the handle of an already
  2112. opened host TAP interface.
  2113. Examples:
  2114. @example
  2115. #launch a QEMU instance with the default network script
  2116. qemu-system-i386 linux.img -nic tap
  2117. @end example
  2118. @example
  2119. #launch a QEMU instance with two NICs, each one connected
  2120. #to a TAP device
  2121. qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
  2122. -netdev tap,id=nd0,ifname=tap0 -device e1000,netdev=nd0 \
  2123. -netdev tap,id=nd1,ifname=tap1 -device rtl8139,netdev=nd1
  2124. @end example
  2125. @example
  2126. #launch a QEMU instance with the default network helper to
  2127. #connect a TAP device to bridge br0
  2128. qemu-system-i386 linux.img -device virtio-net-pci,netdev=n1 \
  2129. -netdev tap,id=n1,"helper=/path/to/qemu-bridge-helper"
  2130. @end example
  2131. @item -netdev bridge,id=@var{id}[,br=@var{bridge}][,helper=@var{helper}]
  2132. Connect a host TAP network interface to a host bridge device.
  2133. Use the network helper @var{helper} to configure the TAP interface and
  2134. attach it to the bridge. The default network helper executable is
  2135. @file{/path/to/qemu-bridge-helper} and the default bridge
  2136. device is @file{br0}.
  2137. Examples:
  2138. @example
  2139. #launch a QEMU instance with the default network helper to
  2140. #connect a TAP device to bridge br0
  2141. qemu-system-i386 linux.img -netdev bridge,id=n1 -device virtio-net,netdev=n1
  2142. @end example
  2143. @example
  2144. #launch a QEMU instance with the default network helper to
  2145. #connect a TAP device to bridge qemubr0
  2146. qemu-system-i386 linux.img -netdev bridge,br=qemubr0,id=n1 -device virtio-net,netdev=n1
  2147. @end example
  2148. @item -netdev socket,id=@var{id}[,fd=@var{h}][,listen=[@var{host}]:@var{port}][,connect=@var{host}:@var{port}]
  2149. This host network backend can be used to connect the guest's network to
  2150. another QEMU virtual machine using a TCP socket connection. If @option{listen}
  2151. is specified, QEMU waits for incoming connections on @var{port}
  2152. (@var{host} is optional). @option{connect} is used to connect to
  2153. another QEMU instance using the @option{listen} option. @option{fd}=@var{h}
  2154. specifies an already opened TCP socket.
  2155. Example:
  2156. @example
  2157. # launch a first QEMU instance
  2158. qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
  2159. -device e1000,netdev=n1,mac=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
  2160. -netdev socket,id=n1,listen=:1234
  2161. # connect the network of this instance to the network of the first instance
  2162. qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
  2163. -device e1000,netdev=n2,mac=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
  2164. -netdev socket,id=n2,connect=
  2165. @end example
  2166. @item -netdev socket,id=@var{id}[,fd=@var{h}][,mcast=@var{maddr}:@var{port}[,localaddr=@var{addr}]]
  2167. Configure a socket host network backend to share the guest's network traffic
  2168. with another QEMU virtual machines using a UDP multicast socket, effectively
  2169. making a bus for every QEMU with same multicast address @var{maddr} and @var{port}.
  2170. NOTES:
  2171. @enumerate
  2172. @item
  2173. Several QEMU can be running on different hosts and share same bus (assuming
  2174. correct multicast setup for these hosts).
  2175. @item
  2176. mcast support is compatible with User Mode Linux (argument @option{eth@var{N}=mcast}), see
  2177. @url{}.
  2178. @item
  2179. Use @option{fd=h} to specify an already opened UDP multicast socket.
  2180. @end enumerate
  2181. Example:
  2182. @example
  2183. # launch one QEMU instance
  2184. qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
  2185. -device e1000,netdev=n1,mac=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
  2186. -netdev socket,id=n1,mcast=
  2187. # launch another QEMU instance on same "bus"
  2188. qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
  2189. -device e1000,netdev=n2,mac=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
  2190. -netdev socket,id=n2,mcast=
  2191. # launch yet another QEMU instance on same "bus"
  2192. qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
  2193. -device e1000,netdev=n3,mac=52:54:00:12:34:58 \
  2194. -netdev socket,id=n3,mcast=
  2195. @end example
  2196. Example (User Mode Linux compat.):
  2197. @example
  2198. # launch QEMU instance (note mcast address selected is UML's default)
  2199. qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
  2200. -device e1000,netdev=n1,mac=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
  2201. -netdev socket,id=n1,mcast=
  2202. # launch UML
  2203. /path/to/linux ubd0=/path/to/root_fs eth0=mcast
  2204. @end example
  2205. Example (send packets from host's
  2206. @example
  2207. qemu-system-i386 linux.img \
  2208. -device e1000,netdev=n1,mac=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
  2209. -netdev socket,id=n1,mcast=,localaddr=
  2210. @end example
  2211. @item -netdev l2tpv3,id=@var{id},src=@var{srcaddr},dst=@var{dstaddr}[,srcport=@var{srcport}][,dstport=@var{dstport}],txsession=@var{txsession}[,rxsession=@var{rxsession}][,ipv6][,udp][,cookie64][,counter][,pincounter][,txcookie=@var{txcookie}][,rxcookie=@var{rxcookie}][,offset=@var{offset}]
  2212. Configure a L2TPv3 pseudowire host network backend. L2TPv3 (RFC3391) is a
  2213. popular protocol to transport Ethernet (and other Layer 2) data frames between
  2214. two systems. It is present in routers, firewalls and the Linux kernel
  2215. (from version 3.3 onwards).
  2216. This transport allows a VM to communicate to another VM, router or firewall directly.
  2217. @table @option
  2218. @item src=@var{srcaddr}
  2219. source address (mandatory)
  2220. @item dst=@var{dstaddr}
  2221. destination address (mandatory)
  2222. @item udp
  2223. select udp encapsulation (default is ip).
  2224. @item srcport=@var{srcport}
  2225. source udp port.
  2226. @item dstport=@var{dstport}
  2227. destination udp port.
  2228. @item ipv6
  2229. force v6, otherwise defaults to v4.
  2230. @item rxcookie=@var{rxcookie}
  2231. @itemx txcookie=@var{txcookie}
  2232. Cookies are a weak form of security in the l2tpv3 specification.
  2233. Their function is mostly to prevent misconfiguration. By default they are 32
  2234. bit.
  2235. @item cookie64
  2236. Set cookie size to 64 bit instead of the default 32
  2237. @item counter=off
  2238. Force a 'cut-down' L2TPv3 with no counter as in
  2239. draft-mkonstan-l2tpext-keyed-ipv6-tunnel-00
  2240. @item pincounter=on
  2241. Work around broken counter handling in peer. This may also help on
  2242. networks which have packet reorder.
  2243. @item offset=@var{offset}
  2244. Add an extra offset between header and data
  2245. @end table
  2246. For example, to attach a VM running on host via L2TPv3 to the bridge br-lan
  2247. on the remote Linux host
  2248. @example
  2249. # Setup tunnel on linux host using raw ip as encapsulation
  2250. # on
  2251. ip l2tp add tunnel remote local tunnel_id 1 peer_tunnel_id 1 \
  2252. encap udp udp_sport 16384 udp_dport 16384
  2253. ip l2tp add session tunnel_id 1 name vmtunnel0 session_id \
  2254. 0xFFFFFFFF peer_session_id 0xFFFFFFFF
  2255. ifconfig vmtunnel0 mtu 1500
  2256. ifconfig vmtunnel0 up
  2257. brctl addif br-lan vmtunnel0
  2258. # on
  2259. # launch QEMU instance - if your network has reorder or is very lossy add ,pincounter
  2260. qemu-system-i386 linux.img -device e1000,netdev=n1 \
  2261. -netdev l2tpv3,id=n1,src=,dst=,udp,srcport=16384,dstport=16384,rxsession=0xffffffff,txsession=0xffffffff,counter
  2262. @end example
  2263. @item -netdev vde,id=@var{id}[,sock=@var{socketpath}][,port=@var{n}][,group=@var{groupname}][,mode=@var{octalmode}]
  2264. Configure VDE backend to connect to PORT @var{n} of a vde switch running on host and
  2265. listening for incoming connections on @var{socketpath}. Use GROUP @var{groupname}
  2266. and MODE @var{octalmode} to change default ownership and permissions for
  2267. communication port. This option is only available if QEMU has been compiled
  2268. with vde support enabled.
  2269. Example:
  2270. @example
  2271. # launch vde switch
  2272. vde_switch -F -sock /tmp/myswitch
  2273. # launch QEMU instance
  2274. qemu-system-i386 linux.img -nic vde,sock=/tmp/myswitch
  2275. @end example
  2276. @item -netdev vhost-user,chardev=@var{id}[,vhostforce=on|off][,queues=n]
  2277. Establish a vhost-user netdev, backed by a chardev @var{id}. The chardev should
  2278. be a unix domain socket backed one. The vhost-user uses a specifically defined
  2279. protocol to pass vhost ioctl replacement messages to an application on the other
  2280. end of the socket. On non-MSIX guests, the feature can be forced with
  2281. @var{vhostforce}. Use 'queues=@var{n}' to specify the number of queues to
  2282. be created for multiqueue vhost-user.
  2283. Example:
  2284. @example
  2285. qemu -m 512 -object memory-backend-file,id=mem,size=512M,mem-path=/hugetlbfs,share=on \
  2286. -numa node,memdev=mem \
  2287. -chardev socket,id=chr0,path=/path/to/socket \
  2288. -netdev type=vhost-user,id=net0,chardev=chr0 \
  2289. -device virtio-net-pci,netdev=net0
  2290. @end example
  2291. @item -netdev hubport,id=@var{id},hubid=@var{hubid}[,netdev=@var{nd}]
  2292. Create a hub port on the emulated hub with ID @var{hubid}.
  2293. The hubport netdev lets you connect a NIC to a QEMU emulated hub instead of a
  2294. single netdev. Alternatively, you can also connect the hubport to another
  2295. netdev with ID @var{nd} by using the @option{netdev=@var{nd}} option.
  2296. @item -net nic[,netdev=@var{nd}][,macaddr=@var{mac}][,model=@var{type}] [,name=@var{name}][,addr=@var{addr}][,vectors=@var{v}]
  2297. @findex -net
  2298. Legacy option to configure or create an on-board (or machine default) Network
  2299. Interface Card(NIC) and connect it either to the emulated hub with ID 0 (i.e.
  2300. the default hub), or to the netdev @var{nd}.
  2301. The NIC is an e1000 by default on the PC target. Optionally, the MAC address
  2302. can be changed to @var{mac}, the device address set to @var{addr} (PCI cards
  2303. only), and a @var{name} can be assigned for use in monitor commands.
  2304. Optionally, for PCI cards, you can specify the number @var{v} of MSI-X vectors
  2305. that the card should have; this option currently only affects virtio cards; set
  2306. @var{v} = 0 to disable MSI-X. If no @option{-net} option is specified, a single
  2307. NIC is created. QEMU can emulate several different models of network card.
  2308. Use @code{-net nic,model=help} for a list of available devices for your target.
  2309. @item -net user|tap|bridge|socket|l2tpv3|vde[,...][,name=@var{name}]
  2310. Configure a host network backend (with the options corresponding to the same
  2311. @option{-netdev} option) and connect it to the emulated hub 0 (the default
  2312. hub). Use @var{name} to specify the name of the hub port.
  2313. ETEXI
  2314. STEXI
  2315. @end table
  2316. ETEXI
  2317. DEFHEADING()
  2318. DEFHEADING(Character device options:)
  2319. DEF("chardev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_chardev,
  2320. "-chardev help\n"
  2321. "-chardev null,id=id[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2322. "-chardev socket,id=id[,host=host],port=port[,to=to][,ipv4][,ipv6][,nodelay][,reconnect=seconds]\n"
  2323. " [,server][,nowait][,telnet][,websocket][,reconnect=seconds][,mux=on|off]\n"
  2324. " [,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off][,tls-creds=ID][,tls-authz=ID] (tcp)\n"
  2325. "-chardev socket,id=id,path=path[,server][,nowait][,telnet][,websocket][,reconnect=seconds]\n"
  2326. " [,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off] (unix)\n"
  2327. "-chardev udp,id=id[,host=host],port=port[,localaddr=localaddr]\n"
  2328. " [,localport=localport][,ipv4][,ipv6][,mux=on|off]\n"
  2329. " [,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2330. "-chardev msmouse,id=id[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2331. "-chardev vc,id=id[[,width=width][,height=height]][[,cols=cols][,rows=rows]]\n"
  2332. " [,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2333. "-chardev ringbuf,id=id[,size=size][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2334. "-chardev file,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2335. "-chardev pipe,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2336. #ifdef _WIN32
  2337. "-chardev console,id=id[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2338. "-chardev serial,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2339. #else
  2340. "-chardev pty,id=id[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2341. "-chardev stdio,id=id[,mux=on|off][,signal=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2342. #endif
  2343. #ifdef CONFIG_BRLAPI
  2344. "-chardev braille,id=id[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2345. #endif
  2346. #if defined(__linux__) || defined(__sun__) || defined(__FreeBSD__) \
  2347. || defined(__NetBSD__) || defined(__OpenBSD__) || defined(__DragonFly__)
  2348. "-chardev serial,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2349. "-chardev tty,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2350. #endif
  2351. #if defined(__linux__) || defined(__FreeBSD__) || defined(__DragonFly__)
  2352. "-chardev parallel,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2353. "-chardev parport,id=id,path=path[,mux=on|off][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2354. #endif
  2355. #if defined(CONFIG_SPICE)
  2356. "-chardev spicevmc,id=id,name=name[,debug=debug][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2357. "-chardev spiceport,id=id,name=name[,debug=debug][,logfile=PATH][,logappend=on|off]\n"
  2358. #endif
  2359. , QEMU_ARCH_ALL
  2360. )
  2361. STEXI
  2362. The general form of a character device option is:
  2363. @table @option
  2364. @item -chardev @var{backend},id=@var{id}[,mux=on|off][,@var{options}]
  2365. @findex -chardev
  2366. Backend is one of:
  2367. @option{null},
  2368. @option{socket},
  2369. @option{udp},
  2370. @option{msmouse},
  2371. @option{vc},
  2372. @option{ringbuf},
  2373. @option{file},
  2374. @option{pipe},
  2375. @option{console},
  2376. @option{serial},
  2377. @option{pty},
  2378. @option{stdio},
  2379. @option{braille},
  2380. @option{tty},
  2381. @option{parallel},
  2382. @option{parport},
  2383. @option{spicevmc},
  2384. @option{spiceport}.
  2385. The specific backend will determine the applicable options.
  2386. Use @code{-chardev help} to print all available chardev backend types.
  2387. All devices must have an id, which can be any string up to 127 characters long.
  2388. It is used to uniquely identify this device in other command line directives.
  2389. A character device may be used in multiplexing mode by multiple front-ends.
  2390. Specify @option{mux=on} to enable this mode.
  2391. A multiplexer is a "1:N" device, and here the "1" end is your specified chardev
  2392. backend, and the "N" end is the various parts of QEMU that can talk to a chardev.
  2393. If you create a chardev with @option{id=myid} and @option{mux=on}, QEMU will
  2394. create a multiplexer with your specified ID, and you can then configure multiple
  2395. front ends to use that chardev ID for their input/output. Up to four different
  2396. front ends can be connected to a single multiplexed chardev. (Without
  2397. multiplexing enabled, a chardev can only be used by a single front end.)
  2398. For instance you could use this to allow a single stdio chardev to be used by
  2399. two serial ports and the QEMU monitor:
  2400. @example
  2401. -chardev stdio,mux=on,id=char0 \
  2402. -mon chardev=char0,mode=readline \
  2403. -serial chardev:char0 \
  2404. -serial chardev:char0
  2405. @end example
  2406. You can have more than one multiplexer in a system configuration; for instance
  2407. you could have a TCP port multiplexed between UART 0 and UART 1, and stdio
  2408. multiplexed between the QEMU monitor and a parallel port:
  2409. @example
  2410. -chardev stdio,mux=on,id=char0 \
  2411. -mon chardev=char0,mode=readline \
  2412. -parallel chardev:char0 \
  2413. -chardev tcp,...,mux=on,id=char1 \
  2414. -serial chardev:char1 \
  2415. -serial chardev:char1
  2416. @end example
  2417. When you're using a multiplexed character device, some escape sequences are
  2418. interpreted in the input. @xref{mux_keys, Keys in the character backend
  2419. multiplexer}.
  2420. Note that some other command line options may implicitly create multiplexed
  2421. character backends; for instance @option{-serial mon:stdio} creates a
  2422. multiplexed stdio backend connected to the serial port and the QEMU monitor,
  2423. and @option{-nographic} also multiplexes the console and the monitor to
  2424. stdio.
  2425. There is currently no support for multiplexing in the other direction
  2426. (where a single QEMU front end takes input and output from multiple chardevs).
  2427. Every backend supports the @option{logfile} option, which supplies the path
  2428. to a file to record all data transmitted via the backend. The @option{logappend}
  2429. option controls whether the log file will be truncated or appended to when
  2430. opened.
  2431. @end table
  2432. The available backends are:
  2433. @table @option
  2434. @item -chardev null,id=@var{id}
  2435. A void device. This device will not emit any data, and will drop any data it
  2436. receives. The null backend does not take any options.
  2437. @item -chardev socket,id=@var{id}[,@var{TCP options} or @var{unix options}][,server][,nowait][,telnet][,websocket][,reconnect=@var{seconds}][,tls-creds=@var{id}][,tls-authz=@var{id}]
  2438. Create a two-way stream socket, which can be either a TCP or a unix socket. A
  2439. unix socket will be created if @option{path} is specified. Behaviour is
  2440. undefined if TCP options are specified for a unix socket.
  2441. @option{server} specifies that the socket shall be a listening socket.
  2442. @option{nowait} specifies that QEMU should not block waiting for a client to
  2443. connect to a listening socket.
  2444. @option{telnet} specifies that traffic on the socket should interpret telnet
  2445. escape sequences.
  2446. @option{websocket} specifies that the socket uses WebSocket protocol for
  2447. communication.
  2448. @option{reconnect} sets the timeout for reconnecting on non-server sockets when
  2449. the remote end goes away. qemu will delay this many seconds and then attempt
  2450. to reconnect. Zero disables reconnecting, and is the default.
  2451. @option{tls-creds} requests enablement of the TLS protocol for encryption,
  2452. and specifies the id of the TLS credentials to use for the handshake. The
  2453. credentials must be previously created with the @option{-object tls-creds}
  2454. argument.
  2455. @option{tls-auth} provides the ID of the QAuthZ authorization object against
  2456. which the client's x509 distinguished name will be validated. This object is
  2457. only resolved at time of use, so can be deleted and recreated on the fly
  2458. while the chardev server is active. If missing, it will default to denying
  2459. access.
  2460. TCP and unix socket options are given below:
  2461. @table @option
  2462. @item TCP options: port=@var{port}[,host=@var{host}][,to=@var{to}][,ipv4][,ipv6][,nodelay]
  2463. @option{host} for a listening socket specifies the local address to be bound.
  2464. For a connecting socket species the remote host to connect to. @option{host} is
  2465. optional for listening sockets. If not specified it defaults to @code{}.
  2466. @option{port} for a listening socket specifies the local port to be bound. For a
  2467. connecting socket specifies the port on the remote host to connect to.
  2468. @option{port} can be given as either a port number or a service name.
  2469. @option{port} is required.
  2470. @option{to} is only relevant to listening sockets. If it is specified, and
  2471. @option{port} cannot be bound, QEMU will attempt to bind to subsequent ports up
  2472. to and including @option{to} until it succeeds. @option{to} must be specified
  2473. as a port number.
  2474. @option{ipv4} and @option{ipv6} specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.
  2475. If neither is specified the socket may use either protocol.
  2476. @option{nodelay} disables the Nagle algorithm.
  2477. @item unix options: path=@var{path}
  2478. @option{path} specifies the local path of the unix socket. @option{path} is
  2479. required.
  2480. @end table
  2481. @item -chardev udp,id=@var{id}[,host=@var{host}],port=@var{port}[,localaddr=@var{localaddr}][,localport=@var{localport}][,ipv4][,ipv6]
  2482. Sends all traffic from the guest to a remote host over UDP.
  2483. @option{host} specifies the remote host to connect to. If not specified it
  2484. defaults to @code{localhost}.
  2485. @option{port} specifies the port on the remote host to connect to. @option{port}
  2486. is required.
  2487. @option{localaddr} specifies the local address to bind to. If not specified it
  2488. defaults to @code{}.
  2489. @option{localport} specifies the local port to bind to. If not specified any
  2490. available local port will be used.
  2491. @option{ipv4} and @option{ipv6} specify that either IPv4 or IPv6 must be used.
  2492. If neither is specified the device may use either protocol.
  2493. @item -chardev msmouse,id=@var{id}
  2494. Forward QEMU's emulated msmouse events to the guest. @option{msmouse} does not
  2495. take any options.
  2496. @item -chardev vc,id=@var{id}[[,width=@var{width}][,height=@var{height}]][[,cols=@var{cols}][,rows=@var{rows}]]
  2497. Connect to a QEMU text console. @option{vc} may optionally be given a specific
  2498. size.
  2499. @option{width} and @option{height} specify the width and height respectively of
  2500. the console, in pixels.
  2501. @option{cols} and @option{rows} specify that the console be sized to fit a text
  2502. console with the given dimensions.
  2503. @item -chardev ringbuf,id=@var{id}[,size=@var{size}]
  2504. Create a ring buffer with fixed size @option{size}.
  2505. @var{size} must be a power of two and defaults to @code{64K}.
  2506. @item -chardev file,id=@var{id},path=@var{path}
  2507. Log all traffic received from the guest to a file.
  2508. @option{path} specifies the path of the file to be opened. This file will be
  2509. created if it does not already exist, and overwritten if it does. @option{path}
  2510. is required.
  2511. @item -chardev pipe,id=@var{id},path=@var{path}
  2512. Create a two-way connection to the guest. The behaviour differs slightly between
  2513. Windows hosts and other hosts:
  2514. On Windows, a single duplex pipe will be created at
  2515. @file{\\.pipe\@option{path}}.
  2516. On other hosts, 2 pipes will be created called @file{@option{path}.in} and
  2517. @file{@option{path}.out}. Data written to @file{@option{path}.in} will be
  2518. received by the guest. Data written by the guest can be read from
  2519. @file{@option{path}.out}. QEMU will not create these fifos, and requires them to
  2520. be present.
  2521. @option{path} forms part of the pipe path as described above. @option{path} is
  2522. required.
  2523. @item -chardev console,id=@var{id}
  2524. Send traffic from the guest to QEMU's standard output. @option{console} does not
  2525. take any options.
  2526. @option{console} is only available on Windows hosts.
  2527. @item -chardev serial,id=@var{id},path=@option{path}
  2528. Send traffic from the guest to a serial device on the host.
  2529. On Unix hosts serial will actually accept any tty device,
  2530. not only serial lines.
  2531. @option{path} specifies the name of the serial device to open.
  2532. @item -chardev pty,id=@var{id}
  2533. Create a new pseudo-terminal on the host and connect to it. @option{pty} does
  2534. not take any options.
  2535. @option{pty} is not available on Windows hosts.
  2536. @item -chardev stdio,id=@var{id}[,signal=on|off]
  2537. Connect to standard input and standard output of the QEMU process.
  2538. @option{signal} controls if signals are enabled on the terminal, that includes
  2539. exiting QEMU with the key sequence @key{Control-c}. This option is enabled by
  2540. default, use @option{signal=off} to disable it.
  2541. @item -chardev braille,id=@var{id}
  2542. Connect to a local BrlAPI server. @option{braille} does not take any options.
  2543. @item -chardev tty,id=@var{id},path=@var{path}
  2544. @option{tty} is only available on Linux, Sun, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and
  2545. DragonFlyBSD hosts. It is an alias for @option{serial}.
  2546. @option{path} specifies the path to the tty. @option{path} is required.
  2547. @item -chardev parallel,id=@var{id},path=@var{path}
  2548. @itemx -chardev parport,id=@var{id},path=@var{path}
  2549. @option{parallel} is only available on Linux, FreeBSD and DragonFlyBSD hosts.
  2550. Connect to a local parallel port.
  2551. @option{path} specifies the path to the parallel port device. @option{path} is
  2552. required.
  2553. @item -chardev spicevmc,id=@var{id},debug=@var{debug},name=@var{name}
  2554. @option{spicevmc} is only available when spice support is built in.
  2555. @option{debug} debug level for spicevmc
  2556. @option{name} name of spice channel to connect to
  2557. Connect to a spice virtual machine channel, such as vdiport.
  2558. @item -chardev spiceport,id=@var{id},debug=@var{debug},name=@var{name}
  2559. @option{spiceport} is only available when spice support is built in.
  2560. @option{debug} debug level for spicevmc
  2561. @option{name} name of spice port to connect to
  2562. Connect to a spice port, allowing a Spice client to handle the traffic
  2563. identified by a name (preferably a fqdn).
  2564. ETEXI
  2565. STEXI
  2566. @end table
  2567. ETEXI
  2568. DEFHEADING()
  2569. DEFHEADING(Bluetooth(R) options:)
  2570. STEXI
  2571. @table @option
  2572. ETEXI
  2573. DEF("bt", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bt, \
  2574. "-bt hci,null dumb bluetooth HCI - doesn't respond to commands\n" \
  2575. "-bt hci,host[:id]\n" \
  2576. " use host's HCI with the given name\n" \
  2577. "-bt hci[,vlan=n]\n" \
  2578. " emulate a standard HCI in virtual scatternet 'n'\n" \
  2579. "-bt vhci[,vlan=n]\n" \
  2580. " add host computer to virtual scatternet 'n' using VHCI\n" \
  2581. "-bt device:dev[,vlan=n]\n" \
  2582. " emulate a bluetooth device 'dev' in scatternet 'n'\n",
  2583. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2584. STEXI
  2585. @item -bt hci[...]
  2586. @findex -bt
  2587. Defines the function of the corresponding Bluetooth HCI. -bt options
  2588. are matched with the HCIs present in the chosen machine type. For
  2589. example when emulating a machine with only one HCI built into it, only
  2590. the first @code{-bt hci[...]} option is valid and defines the HCI's
  2591. logic. The Transport Layer is decided by the machine type. Currently
  2592. the machines @code{n800} and @code{n810} have one HCI and all other
  2593. machines have none.
  2594. Note: This option and the whole bluetooth subsystem is considered as deprecated.
  2595. If you still use it, please send a mail to @email{} where
  2596. you describe your usecase.
  2597. @anchor{bt-hcis}
  2598. The following three types are recognized:
  2599. @table @option
  2600. @item -bt hci,null
  2601. (default) The corresponding Bluetooth HCI assumes no internal logic
  2602. and will not respond to any HCI commands or emit events.
  2603. @item -bt hci,host[:@var{id}]
  2604. (@code{bluez} only) The corresponding HCI passes commands / events
  2605. to / from the physical HCI identified by the name @var{id} (default:
  2606. @code{hci0}) on the computer running QEMU. Only available on @code{bluez}
  2607. capable systems like Linux.
  2608. @item -bt hci[,vlan=@var{n}]
  2609. Add a virtual, standard HCI that will participate in the Bluetooth
  2610. scatternet @var{n} (default @code{0}). Similarly to @option{-net}
  2611. VLANs, devices inside a bluetooth network @var{n} can only communicate
  2612. with other devices in the same network (scatternet).
  2613. @end table
  2614. @item -bt vhci[,vlan=@var{n}]
  2615. (Linux-host only) Create a HCI in scatternet @var{n} (default 0) attached
  2616. to the host bluetooth stack instead of to the emulated target. This
  2617. allows the host and target machines to participate in a common scatternet
  2618. and communicate. Requires the Linux @code{vhci} driver installed. Can
  2619. be used as following:
  2620. @example
  2621. qemu-system-i386 [...OPTIONS...] -bt hci,vlan=5 -bt vhci,vlan=5
  2622. @end example
  2623. @item -bt device:@var{dev}[,vlan=@var{n}]
  2624. Emulate a bluetooth device @var{dev} and place it in network @var{n}
  2625. (default @code{0}). QEMU can only emulate one type of bluetooth devices
  2626. currently:
  2627. @table @option
  2628. @item keyboard
  2629. Virtual wireless keyboard implementing the HIDP bluetooth profile.
  2630. @end table
  2631. ETEXI
  2632. STEXI
  2633. @end table
  2634. ETEXI
  2635. DEFHEADING()
  2636. #ifdef CONFIG_TPM
  2637. DEFHEADING(TPM device options:)
  2638. DEF("tpmdev", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_tpmdev, \
  2639. "-tpmdev passthrough,id=id[,path=path][,cancel-path=path]\n"
  2640. " use path to provide path to a character device; default is /dev/tpm0\n"
  2641. " use cancel-path to provide path to TPM's cancel sysfs entry; if\n"
  2642. " not provided it will be searched for in /sys/class/misc/tpm?/device\n"
  2643. "-tpmdev emulator,id=id,chardev=dev\n"
  2644. " configure the TPM device using chardev backend\n",
  2645. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2646. STEXI
  2647. The general form of a TPM device option is:
  2648. @table @option
  2649. @item -tpmdev @var{backend},id=@var{id}[,@var{options}]
  2650. @findex -tpmdev
  2651. The specific backend type will determine the applicable options.
  2652. The @code{-tpmdev} option creates the TPM backend and requires a
  2653. @code{-device} option that specifies the TPM frontend interface model.
  2654. Use @code{-tpmdev help} to print all available TPM backend types.
  2655. @end table
  2656. The available backends are:
  2657. @table @option
  2658. @item -tpmdev passthrough,id=@var{id},path=@var{path},cancel-path=@var{cancel-path}
  2659. (Linux-host only) Enable access to the host's TPM using the passthrough
  2660. driver.
  2661. @option{path} specifies the path to the host's TPM device, i.e., on
  2662. a Linux host this would be @code{/dev/tpm0}.
  2663. @option{path} is optional and by default @code{/dev/tpm0} is used.
  2664. @option{cancel-path} specifies the path to the host TPM device's sysfs
  2665. entry allowing for cancellation of an ongoing TPM command.
  2666. @option{cancel-path} is optional and by default QEMU will search for the
  2667. sysfs entry to use.
  2668. Some notes about using the host's TPM with the passthrough driver:
  2669. The TPM device accessed by the passthrough driver must not be
  2670. used by any other application on the host.
  2671. Since the host's firmware (BIOS/UEFI) has already initialized the TPM,
  2672. the VM's firmware (BIOS/UEFI) will not be able to initialize the
  2673. TPM again and may therefore not show a TPM-specific menu that would
  2674. otherwise allow the user to configure the TPM, e.g., allow the user to
  2675. enable/disable or activate/deactivate the TPM.
  2676. Further, if TPM ownership is released from within a VM then the host's TPM
  2677. will get disabled and deactivated. To enable and activate the
  2678. TPM again afterwards, the host has to be rebooted and the user is
  2679. required to enter the firmware's menu to enable and activate the TPM.
  2680. If the TPM is left disabled and/or deactivated most TPM commands will fail.
  2681. To create a passthrough TPM use the following two options:
  2682. @example
  2683. -tpmdev passthrough,id=tpm0 -device tpm-tis,tpmdev=tpm0
  2684. @end example
  2685. Note that the @code{-tpmdev} id is @code{tpm0} and is referenced by
  2686. @code{tpmdev=tpm0} in the device option.
  2687. @item -tpmdev emulator,id=@var{id},chardev=@var{dev}
  2688. (Linux-host only) Enable access to a TPM emulator using Unix domain socket based
  2689. chardev backend.
  2690. @option{chardev} specifies the unique ID of a character device backend that provides connection to the software TPM server.
  2691. To create a TPM emulator backend device with chardev socket backend:
  2692. @example
  2693. -chardev socket,id=chrtpm,path=/tmp/swtpm-sock -tpmdev emulator,id=tpm0,chardev=chrtpm -device tpm-tis,tpmdev=tpm0
  2694. @end example
  2695. ETEXI
  2696. STEXI
  2697. @end table
  2698. ETEXI
  2699. DEFHEADING()
  2700. #endif
  2701. DEFHEADING(Linux/Multiboot boot specific:)
  2702. STEXI
  2703. When using these options, you can use a given Linux or Multiboot
  2704. kernel without installing it in the disk image. It can be useful
  2705. for easier testing of various kernels.
  2706. @table @option
  2707. ETEXI
  2708. DEF("kernel", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_kernel, \
  2709. "-kernel bzImage use 'bzImage' as kernel image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2710. STEXI
  2711. @item -kernel @var{bzImage}
  2712. @findex -kernel
  2713. Use @var{bzImage} as kernel image. The kernel can be either a Linux kernel
  2714. or in multiboot format.
  2715. ETEXI
  2716. DEF("append", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_append, \
  2717. "-append cmdline use 'cmdline' as kernel command line\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2718. STEXI
  2719. @item -append @var{cmdline}
  2720. @findex -append
  2721. Use @var{cmdline} as kernel command line
  2722. ETEXI
  2723. DEF("initrd", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_initrd, \
  2724. "-initrd file use 'file' as initial ram disk\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2725. STEXI
  2726. @item -initrd @var{file}
  2727. @findex -initrd
  2728. Use @var{file} as initial ram disk.
  2729. @item -initrd "@var{file1} arg=foo,@var{file2}"
  2730. This syntax is only available with multiboot.
  2731. Use @var{file1} and @var{file2} as modules and pass arg=foo as parameter to the
  2732. first module.
  2733. ETEXI
  2734. DEF("dtb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_dtb, \
  2735. "-dtb file use 'file' as device tree image\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2736. STEXI
  2737. @item -dtb @var{file}
  2738. @findex -dtb
  2739. Use @var{file} as a device tree binary (dtb) image and pass it to the kernel
  2740. on boot.
  2741. ETEXI
  2742. STEXI
  2743. @end table
  2744. ETEXI
  2745. DEFHEADING()
  2746. DEFHEADING(Debug/Expert options:)
  2747. STEXI
  2748. @table @option
  2749. ETEXI
  2750. DEF("fw_cfg", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_fwcfg,
  2751. "-fw_cfg [name=]<name>,file=<file>\n"
  2752. " add named fw_cfg entry with contents from file\n"
  2753. "-fw_cfg [name=]<name>,string=<str>\n"
  2754. " add named fw_cfg entry with contents from string\n",
  2755. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2756. STEXI
  2757. @item -fw_cfg [name=]@var{name},file=@var{file}
  2758. @findex -fw_cfg
  2759. Add named fw_cfg entry with contents from file @var{file}.
  2760. @item -fw_cfg [name=]@var{name},string=@var{str}
  2761. Add named fw_cfg entry with contents from string @var{str}.
  2762. The terminating NUL character of the contents of @var{str} will not be
  2763. included as part of the fw_cfg item data. To insert contents with
  2764. embedded NUL characters, you have to use the @var{file} parameter.
  2765. The fw_cfg entries are passed by QEMU through to the guest.
  2766. Example:
  2767. @example
  2768. -fw_cfg name=opt/com.mycompany/blob,file=./my_blob.bin
  2769. @end example
  2770. creates an fw_cfg entry named opt/com.mycompany/blob with contents
  2771. from ./my_blob.bin.
  2772. ETEXI
  2773. DEF("serial", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_serial, \
  2774. "-serial dev redirect the serial port to char device 'dev'\n",
  2775. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2776. STEXI
  2777. @item -serial @var{dev}
  2778. @findex -serial
  2779. Redirect the virtual serial port to host character device
  2780. @var{dev}. The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and
  2781. @code{stdio} in non graphical mode.
  2782. This option can be used several times to simulate up to 4 serial
  2783. ports.
  2784. Use @code{-serial none} to disable all serial ports.
  2785. Available character devices are:
  2786. @table @option
  2787. @item vc[:@var{W}x@var{H}]
  2788. Virtual console. Optionally, a width and height can be given in pixel with
  2789. @example
  2790. vc:800x600
  2791. @end example
  2792. It is also possible to specify width or height in characters:
  2793. @example
  2794. vc:80Cx24C
  2795. @end example
  2796. @item pty
  2797. [Linux only] Pseudo TTY (a new PTY is automatically allocated)
  2798. @item none
  2799. No device is allocated.
  2800. @item null
  2801. void device
  2802. @item chardev:@var{id}
  2803. Use a named character device defined with the @code{-chardev} option.
  2804. @item /dev/XXX
  2805. [Linux only] Use host tty, e.g. @file{/dev/ttyS0}. The host serial port
  2806. parameters are set according to the emulated ones.
  2807. @item /dev/parport@var{N}
  2808. [Linux only, parallel port only] Use host parallel port
  2809. @var{N}. Currently SPP and EPP parallel port features can be used.
  2810. @item file:@var{filename}
  2811. Write output to @var{filename}. No character can be read.
  2812. @item stdio
  2813. [Unix only] standard input/output
  2814. @item pipe:@var{filename}
  2815. name pipe @var{filename}
  2816. @item COM@var{n}
  2817. [Windows only] Use host serial port @var{n}
  2818. @item udp:[@var{remote_host}]:@var{remote_port}[@@[@var{src_ip}]:@var{src_port}]
  2819. This implements UDP Net Console.
  2820. When @var{remote_host} or @var{src_ip} are not specified
  2821. they default to @code{}.
  2822. When not using a specified @var{src_port} a random port is automatically chosen.
  2823. If you just want a simple readonly console you can use @code{netcat} or
  2824. @code{nc}, by starting QEMU with: @code{-serial udp::4555} and nc as:
  2825. @code{nc -u -l -p 4555}. Any time QEMU writes something to that port it
  2826. will appear in the netconsole session.
  2827. If you plan to send characters back via netconsole or you want to stop
  2828. and start QEMU a lot of times, you should have QEMU use the same
  2829. source port each time by using something like @code{-serial
  2830. udp::4555@@:4556} to QEMU. Another approach is to use a patched
  2831. version of netcat which can listen to a TCP port and send and receive
  2832. characters via udp. If you have a patched version of netcat which
  2833. activates telnet remote echo and single char transfer, then you can
  2834. use the following options to set up a netcat redirector to allow
  2835. telnet on port 5555 to access the QEMU port.
  2836. @table @code
  2837. @item QEMU Options:
  2838. -serial udp::4555@@:4556
  2839. @item netcat options:
  2840. -u -P 4555 -L -t -p 5555 -I -T
  2841. @item telnet options:
  2842. localhost 5555
  2843. @end table
  2844. @item tcp:[@var{host}]:@var{port}[,@var{server}][,nowait][,nodelay][,reconnect=@var{seconds}]
  2845. The TCP Net Console has two modes of operation. It can send the serial
  2846. I/O to a location or wait for a connection from a location. By default
  2847. the TCP Net Console is sent to @var{host} at the @var{port}. If you use
  2848. the @var{server} option QEMU will wait for a client socket application
  2849. to connect to the port before continuing, unless the @code{nowait}
  2850. option was specified. The @code{nodelay} option disables the Nagle buffering
  2851. algorithm. The @code{reconnect} option only applies if @var{noserver} is
  2852. set, if the connection goes down it will attempt to reconnect at the
  2853. given interval. If @var{host} is omitted, is assumed. Only
  2854. one TCP connection at a time is accepted. You can use @code{telnet} to
  2855. connect to the corresponding character device.
  2856. @table @code
  2857. @item Example to send tcp console to port 4444
  2858. -serial tcp:
  2859. @item Example to listen and wait on port 4444 for connection
  2860. -serial tcp::4444,server
  2861. @item Example to not wait and listen on ip port 4444
  2862. -serial tcp:,server,nowait
  2863. @end table
  2864. @item telnet:@var{host}:@var{port}[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]
  2865. The telnet protocol is used instead of raw tcp sockets. The options
  2866. work the same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp}. The
  2867. difference is that the port acts like a telnet server or client using
  2868. telnet option negotiation. This will also allow you to send the
  2869. MAGIC_SYSRQ sequence if you use a telnet that supports sending the break
  2870. sequence. Typically in unix telnet you do it with Control-] and then
  2871. type "send break" followed by pressing the enter key.
  2872. @item websocket:@var{host}:@var{port},server[,nowait][,nodelay]
  2873. The WebSocket protocol is used instead of raw tcp socket. The port acts as
  2874. a WebSocket server. Client mode is not supported.
  2875. @item unix:@var{path}[,server][,nowait][,reconnect=@var{seconds}]
  2876. A unix domain socket is used instead of a tcp socket. The option works the
  2877. same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp} except the unix domain socket
  2878. @var{path} is used for connections.
  2879. @item mon:@var{dev_string}
  2880. This is a special option to allow the monitor to be multiplexed onto
  2881. another serial port. The monitor is accessed with key sequence of
  2882. @key{Control-a} and then pressing @key{c}.
  2883. @var{dev_string} should be any one of the serial devices specified
  2884. above. An example to multiplex the monitor onto a telnet server
  2885. listening on port 4444 would be:
  2886. @table @code
  2887. @item -serial mon:telnet::4444,server,nowait
  2888. @end table
  2889. When the monitor is multiplexed to stdio in this way, Ctrl+C will not terminate
  2890. QEMU any more but will be passed to the guest instead.
  2891. @item braille
  2892. Braille device. This will use BrlAPI to display the braille output on a real
  2893. or fake device.
  2894. @item msmouse
  2895. Three button serial mouse. Configure the guest to use Microsoft protocol.
  2896. @end table
  2897. ETEXI
  2898. DEF("parallel", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_parallel, \
  2899. "-parallel dev redirect the parallel port to char device 'dev'\n",
  2900. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2901. STEXI
  2902. @item -parallel @var{dev}
  2903. @findex -parallel
  2904. Redirect the virtual parallel port to host device @var{dev} (same
  2905. devices as the serial port). On Linux hosts, @file{/dev/parportN} can
  2906. be used to use hardware devices connected on the corresponding host
  2907. parallel port.
  2908. This option can be used several times to simulate up to 3 parallel
  2909. ports.
  2910. Use @code{-parallel none} to disable all parallel ports.
  2911. ETEXI
  2912. DEF("monitor", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_monitor, \
  2913. "-monitor dev redirect the monitor to char device 'dev'\n",
  2914. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2915. STEXI
  2916. @item -monitor @var{dev}
  2917. @findex -monitor
  2918. Redirect the monitor to host device @var{dev} (same devices as the
  2919. serial port).
  2920. The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and @code{stdio} in
  2921. non graphical mode.
  2922. Use @code{-monitor none} to disable the default monitor.
  2923. ETEXI
  2924. DEF("qmp", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_qmp, \
  2925. "-qmp dev like -monitor but opens in 'control' mode\n",
  2926. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2927. STEXI
  2928. @item -qmp @var{dev}
  2929. @findex -qmp
  2930. Like -monitor but opens in 'control' mode.
  2931. ETEXI
  2932. DEF("qmp-pretty", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_qmp_pretty, \
  2933. "-qmp-pretty dev like -qmp but uses pretty JSON formatting\n",
  2934. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2935. STEXI
  2936. @item -qmp-pretty @var{dev}
  2937. @findex -qmp-pretty
  2938. Like -qmp but uses pretty JSON formatting.
  2939. ETEXI
  2940. DEF("mon", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_mon, \
  2941. "-mon [chardev=]name[,mode=readline|control][,pretty[=on|off]]\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2942. STEXI
  2943. @item -mon [chardev=]name[,mode=readline|control][,pretty[=on|off]]
  2944. @findex -mon
  2945. Setup monitor on chardev @var{name}. @code{pretty} turns on JSON pretty printing
  2946. easing human reading and debugging.
  2947. ETEXI
  2948. DEF("debugcon", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_debugcon, \
  2949. "-debugcon dev redirect the debug console to char device 'dev'\n",
  2950. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2951. STEXI
  2952. @item -debugcon @var{dev}
  2953. @findex -debugcon
  2954. Redirect the debug console to host device @var{dev} (same devices as the
  2955. serial port). The debug console is an I/O port which is typically port
  2956. 0xe9; writing to that I/O port sends output to this device.
  2957. The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and @code{stdio} in
  2958. non graphical mode.
  2959. ETEXI
  2960. DEF("pidfile", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_pidfile, \
  2961. "-pidfile file write PID to 'file'\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2962. STEXI
  2963. @item -pidfile @var{file}
  2964. @findex -pidfile
  2965. Store the QEMU process PID in @var{file}. It is useful if you launch QEMU
  2966. from a script.
  2967. ETEXI
  2968. DEF("singlestep", 0, QEMU_OPTION_singlestep, \
  2969. "-singlestep always run in singlestep mode\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2970. STEXI
  2971. @item -singlestep
  2972. @findex -singlestep
  2973. Run the emulation in single step mode.
  2974. ETEXI
  2975. DEF("preconfig", 0, QEMU_OPTION_preconfig, \
  2976. "--preconfig pause QEMU before machine is initialized (experimental)\n",
  2977. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2978. STEXI
  2979. @item --preconfig
  2980. @findex --preconfig
  2981. Pause QEMU for interactive configuration before the machine is created,
  2982. which allows querying and configuring properties that will affect
  2983. machine initialization. Use QMP command 'x-exit-preconfig' to exit
  2984. the preconfig state and move to the next state (i.e. run guest if -S
  2985. isn't used or pause the second time if -S is used). This option is
  2986. experimental.
  2987. ETEXI
  2988. DEF("S", 0, QEMU_OPTION_S, \
  2989. "-S freeze CPU at startup (use 'c' to start execution)\n",
  2990. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  2991. STEXI
  2992. @item -S
  2993. @findex -S
  2994. Do not start CPU at startup (you must type 'c' in the monitor).
  2995. ETEXI
  2996. DEF("realtime", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_realtime,
  2997. "-realtime [mlock=on|off]\n"
  2998. " run qemu with realtime features\n"
  2999. " mlock=on|off controls mlock support (default: on)\n",
  3000. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3001. STEXI
  3002. @item -realtime mlock=on|off
  3003. @findex -realtime
  3004. Run qemu with realtime features.
  3005. mlocking qemu and guest memory can be enabled via @option{mlock=on}
  3006. (enabled by default).
  3007. ETEXI
  3008. DEF("overcommit", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_overcommit,
  3009. "-overcommit [mem-lock=on|off][cpu-pm=on|off]\n"
  3010. " run qemu with overcommit hints\n"
  3011. " mem-lock=on|off controls memory lock support (default: off)\n"
  3012. " cpu-pm=on|off controls cpu power management (default: off)\n",
  3013. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3014. STEXI
  3015. @item -overcommit mem-lock=on|off
  3016. @item -overcommit cpu-pm=on|off
  3017. @findex -overcommit
  3018. Run qemu with hints about host resource overcommit. The default is
  3019. to assume that host overcommits all resources.
  3020. Locking qemu and guest memory can be enabled via @option{mem-lock=on} (disabled
  3021. by default). This works when host memory is not overcommitted and reduces the
  3022. worst-case latency for guest. This is equivalent to @option{realtime}.
  3023. Guest ability to manage power state of host cpus (increasing latency for other
  3024. processes on the same host cpu, but decreasing latency for guest) can be
  3025. enabled via @option{cpu-pm=on} (disabled by default). This works best when
  3026. host CPU is not overcommitted. When used, host estimates of CPU cycle and power
  3027. utilization will be incorrect, not taking into account guest idle time.
  3028. ETEXI
  3029. DEF("gdb", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_gdb, \
  3030. "-gdb dev wait for gdb connection on 'dev'\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3031. STEXI
  3032. @item -gdb @var{dev}
  3033. @findex -gdb
  3034. Wait for gdb connection on device @var{dev} (@pxref{gdb_usage}). Typical
  3035. connections will likely be TCP-based, but also UDP, pseudo TTY, or even
  3036. stdio are reasonable use case. The latter is allowing to start QEMU from
  3037. within gdb and establish the connection via a pipe:
  3038. @example
  3039. (gdb) target remote | exec qemu-system-i386 -gdb stdio ...
  3040. @end example
  3041. ETEXI
  3042. DEF("s", 0, QEMU_OPTION_s, \
  3043. "-s shorthand for -gdb tcp::" DEFAULT_GDBSTUB_PORT "\n",
  3044. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3045. STEXI
  3046. @item -s
  3047. @findex -s
  3048. Shorthand for -gdb tcp::1234, i.e. open a gdbserver on TCP port 1234
  3049. (@pxref{gdb_usage}).
  3050. ETEXI
  3051. DEF("d", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_d, \
  3052. "-d item1,... enable logging of specified items (use '-d help' for a list of log items)\n",
  3053. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3054. STEXI
  3055. @item -d @var{item1}[,...]
  3056. @findex -d
  3057. Enable logging of specified items. Use '-d help' for a list of log items.
  3058. ETEXI
  3059. DEF("D", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_D, \
  3060. "-D logfile output log to logfile (default stderr)\n",
  3061. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3062. STEXI
  3063. @item -D @var{logfile}
  3064. @findex -D
  3065. Output log in @var{logfile} instead of to stderr
  3066. ETEXI
  3067. DEF("dfilter", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_DFILTER, \
  3068. "-dfilter range,.. filter debug output to range of addresses (useful for -d cpu,exec,etc..)\n",
  3069. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3070. STEXI
  3071. @item -dfilter @var{range1}[,...]
  3072. @findex -dfilter
  3073. Filter debug output to that relevant to a range of target addresses. The filter
  3074. spec can be either @var{start}+@var{size}, @var{start}-@var{size} or
  3075. @var{start}..@var{end} where @var{start} @var{end} and @var{size} are the
  3076. addresses and sizes required. For example:
  3077. @example
  3078. -dfilter 0x8000..0x8fff,0xffffffc000080000+0x200,0xffffffc000060000-0x1000
  3079. @end example
  3080. Will dump output for any code in the 0x1000 sized block starting at 0x8000 and
  3081. the 0x200 sized block starting at 0xffffffc000080000 and another 0x1000 sized
  3082. block starting at 0xffffffc00005f000.
  3083. ETEXI
  3084. DEF("seed", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_seed, \
  3085. "-seed number seed the pseudo-random number generator\n",
  3086. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3087. STEXI
  3088. @item -seed @var{number}
  3089. @findex -seed
  3090. Force the guest to use a deterministic pseudo-random number generator, seeded
  3091. with @var{number}. This does not affect crypto routines within the host.
  3092. ETEXI
  3093. DEF("L", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_L, \
  3094. "-L path set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps\n",
  3095. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3096. STEXI
  3097. @item -L @var{path}
  3098. @findex -L
  3099. Set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps.
  3100. To list all the data directories, use @code{-L help}.
  3101. ETEXI
  3102. DEF("bios", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_bios, \
  3103. "-bios file set the filename for the BIOS\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3104. STEXI
  3105. @item -bios @var{file}
  3106. @findex -bios
  3107. Set the filename for the BIOS.
  3108. ETEXI
  3109. DEF("enable-kvm", 0, QEMU_OPTION_enable_kvm, \
  3110. "-enable-kvm enable KVM full virtualization support\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3111. STEXI
  3112. @item -enable-kvm
  3113. @findex -enable-kvm
  3114. Enable KVM full virtualization support. This option is only available
  3115. if KVM support is enabled when compiling.
  3116. ETEXI
  3117. DEF("xen-domid", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_xen_domid,
  3118. "-xen-domid id specify xen guest domain id\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3119. DEF("xen-attach", 0, QEMU_OPTION_xen_attach,
  3120. "-xen-attach attach to existing xen domain\n"
  3121. " libxl will use this when starting QEMU\n",
  3122. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3123. DEF("xen-domid-restrict", 0, QEMU_OPTION_xen_domid_restrict,
  3124. "-xen-domid-restrict restrict set of available xen operations\n"
  3125. " to specified domain id. (Does not affect\n"
  3126. " xenpv machine type).\n",
  3127. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3128. STEXI
  3129. @item -xen-domid @var{id}
  3130. @findex -xen-domid
  3131. Specify xen guest domain @var{id} (XEN only).
  3132. @item -xen-attach
  3133. @findex -xen-attach
  3134. Attach to existing xen domain.
  3135. libxl will use this when starting QEMU (XEN only).
  3136. @findex -xen-domid-restrict
  3137. Restrict set of available xen operations to specified domain id (XEN only).
  3138. ETEXI
  3139. DEF("no-reboot", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_reboot, \
  3140. "-no-reboot exit instead of rebooting\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3141. STEXI
  3142. @item -no-reboot
  3143. @findex -no-reboot
  3144. Exit instead of rebooting.
  3145. ETEXI
  3146. DEF("no-shutdown", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_shutdown, \
  3147. "-no-shutdown stop before shutdown\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3148. STEXI
  3149. @item -no-shutdown
  3150. @findex -no-shutdown
  3151. Don't exit QEMU on guest shutdown, but instead only stop the emulation.
  3152. This allows for instance switching to monitor to commit changes to the
  3153. disk image.
  3154. ETEXI
  3155. DEF("loadvm", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_loadvm, \
  3156. "-loadvm [tag|id]\n" \
  3157. " start right away with a saved state (loadvm in monitor)\n",
  3158. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3159. STEXI
  3160. @item -loadvm @var{file}
  3161. @findex -loadvm
  3162. Start right away with a saved state (@code{loadvm} in monitor)
  3163. ETEXI
  3164. #ifndef _WIN32
  3165. DEF("daemonize", 0, QEMU_OPTION_daemonize, \
  3166. "-daemonize daemonize QEMU after initializing\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3167. #endif
  3168. STEXI
  3169. @item -daemonize
  3170. @findex -daemonize
  3171. Daemonize the QEMU process after initialization. QEMU will not detach from
  3172. standard IO until it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices.
  3173. This option is a useful way for external programs to launch QEMU without having
  3174. to cope with initialization race conditions.
  3175. ETEXI
  3176. DEF("option-rom", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_option_rom, \
  3177. "-option-rom rom load a file, rom, into the option ROM space\n",
  3178. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3179. STEXI
  3180. @item -option-rom @var{file}
  3181. @findex -option-rom
  3182. Load the contents of @var{file} as an option ROM.
  3183. This option is useful to load things like EtherBoot.
  3184. ETEXI
  3185. DEF("rtc", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_rtc, \
  3186. "-rtc [base=utc|localtime|<datetime>][,clock=host|rt|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]\n" \
  3187. " set the RTC base and clock, enable drift fix for clock ticks (x86 only)\n",
  3188. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3189. STEXI
  3190. @item -rtc [base=utc|localtime|@var{datetime}][,clock=host|rt|vm][,driftfix=none|slew]
  3191. @findex -rtc
  3192. Specify @option{base} as @code{utc} or @code{localtime} to let the RTC start at the current
  3193. UTC or local time, respectively. @code{localtime} is required for correct date in
  3194. MS-DOS or Windows. To start at a specific point in time, provide @var{datetime} in the
  3195. format @code{2006-06-17T16:01:21} or @code{2006-06-17}. The default base is UTC.
  3196. By default the RTC is driven by the host system time. This allows using of the
  3197. RTC as accurate reference clock inside the guest, specifically if the host
  3198. time is smoothly following an accurate external reference clock, e.g. via NTP.
  3199. If you want to isolate the guest time from the host, you can set @option{clock}
  3200. to @code{rt} instead, which provides a host monotonic clock if host support it.
  3201. To even prevent the RTC from progressing during suspension, you can set @option{clock}
  3202. to @code{vm} (virtual clock). @samp{clock=vm} is recommended especially in
  3203. icount mode in order to preserve determinism; however, note that in icount mode
  3204. the speed of the virtual clock is variable and can in general differ from the
  3205. host clock.
  3206. Enable @option{driftfix} (i386 targets only) if you experience time drift problems,
  3207. specifically with Windows' ACPI HAL. This option will try to figure out how
  3208. many timer interrupts were not processed by the Windows guest and will
  3209. re-inject them.
  3210. ETEXI
  3211. DEF("icount", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_icount, \
  3212. "-icount [shift=N|auto][,align=on|off][,sleep=on|off,rr=record|replay,rrfile=<filename>,rrsnapshot=<snapshot>]\n" \
  3213. " enable virtual instruction counter with 2^N clock ticks per\n" \
  3214. " instruction, enable aligning the host and virtual clocks\n" \
  3215. " or disable real time cpu sleeping\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3216. STEXI
  3217. @item -icount [shift=@var{N}|auto][,rr=record|replay,rrfile=@var{filename},rrsnapshot=@var{snapshot}]
  3218. @findex -icount
  3219. Enable virtual instruction counter. The virtual cpu will execute one
  3220. instruction every 2^@var{N} ns of virtual time. If @code{auto} is specified
  3221. then the virtual cpu speed will be automatically adjusted to keep virtual
  3222. time within a few seconds of real time.
  3223. When the virtual cpu is sleeping, the virtual time will advance at default
  3224. speed unless @option{sleep=on|off} is specified.
  3225. With @option{sleep=on|off}, the virtual time will jump to the next timer deadline
  3226. instantly whenever the virtual cpu goes to sleep mode and will not advance
  3227. if no timer is enabled. This behavior give deterministic execution times from
  3228. the guest point of view.
  3229. Note that while this option can give deterministic behavior, it does not
  3230. provide cycle accurate emulation. Modern CPUs contain superscalar out of
  3231. order cores with complex cache hierarchies. The number of instructions
  3232. executed often has little or no correlation with actual performance.
  3233. @option{align=on} will activate the delay algorithm which will try
  3234. to synchronise the host clock and the virtual clock. The goal is to
  3235. have a guest running at the real frequency imposed by the shift option.
  3236. Whenever the guest clock is behind the host clock and if
  3237. @option{align=on} is specified then we print a message to the user
  3238. to inform about the delay.
  3239. Currently this option does not work when @option{shift} is @code{auto}.
  3240. Note: The sync algorithm will work for those shift values for which
  3241. the guest clock runs ahead of the host clock. Typically this happens
  3242. when the shift value is high (how high depends on the host machine).
  3243. When @option{rr} option is specified deterministic record/replay is enabled.
  3244. Replay log is written into @var{filename} file in record mode and
  3245. read from this file in replay mode.
  3246. Option rrsnapshot is used to create new vm snapshot named @var{snapshot}
  3247. at the start of execution recording. In replay mode this option is used
  3248. to load the initial VM state.
  3249. ETEXI
  3250. DEF("watchdog", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_watchdog, \
  3251. "-watchdog model\n" \
  3252. " enable virtual hardware watchdog [default=none]\n",
  3253. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3254. STEXI
  3255. @item -watchdog @var{model}
  3256. @findex -watchdog
  3257. Create a virtual hardware watchdog device. Once enabled (by a guest
  3258. action), the watchdog must be periodically polled by an agent inside
  3259. the guest or else the guest will be restarted. Choose a model for
  3260. which your guest has drivers.
  3261. The @var{model} is the model of hardware watchdog to emulate. Use
  3262. @code{-watchdog help} to list available hardware models. Only one
  3263. watchdog can be enabled for a guest.
  3264. The following models may be available:
  3265. @table @option
  3266. @item ib700
  3267. iBASE 700 is a very simple ISA watchdog with a single timer.
  3268. @item i6300esb
  3269. Intel 6300ESB I/O controller hub is a much more featureful PCI-based
  3270. dual-timer watchdog.
  3271. @item diag288
  3272. A virtual watchdog for s390x backed by the diagnose 288 hypercall
  3273. (currently KVM only).
  3274. @end table
  3275. ETEXI
  3276. DEF("watchdog-action", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_watchdog_action, \
  3277. "-watchdog-action reset|shutdown|poweroff|inject-nmi|pause|debug|none\n" \
  3278. " action when watchdog fires [default=reset]\n",
  3279. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3280. STEXI
  3281. @item -watchdog-action @var{action}
  3282. @findex -watchdog-action
  3283. The @var{action} controls what QEMU will do when the watchdog timer
  3284. expires.
  3285. The default is
  3286. @code{reset} (forcefully reset the guest).
  3287. Other possible actions are:
  3288. @code{shutdown} (attempt to gracefully shutdown the guest),
  3289. @code{poweroff} (forcefully poweroff the guest),
  3290. @code{inject-nmi} (inject a NMI into the guest),
  3291. @code{pause} (pause the guest),
  3292. @code{debug} (print a debug message and continue), or
  3293. @code{none} (do nothing).
  3294. Note that the @code{shutdown} action requires that the guest responds
  3295. to ACPI signals, which it may not be able to do in the sort of
  3296. situations where the watchdog would have expired, and thus
  3297. @code{-watchdog-action shutdown} is not recommended for production use.
  3298. Examples:
  3299. @table @code
  3300. @item -watchdog i6300esb -watchdog-action pause
  3301. @itemx -watchdog ib700
  3302. @end table
  3303. ETEXI
  3304. DEF("echr", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_echr, \
  3305. "-echr chr set terminal escape character instead of ctrl-a\n",
  3306. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3307. STEXI
  3308. @item -echr @var{numeric_ascii_value}
  3309. @findex -echr
  3310. Change the escape character used for switching to the monitor when using
  3311. monitor and serial sharing. The default is @code{0x01} when using the
  3312. @code{-nographic} option. @code{0x01} is equal to pressing
  3313. @code{Control-a}. You can select a different character from the ascii
  3314. control keys where 1 through 26 map to Control-a through Control-z. For
  3315. instance you could use the either of the following to change the escape
  3316. character to Control-t.
  3317. @table @code
  3318. @item -echr 0x14
  3319. @itemx -echr 20
  3320. @end table
  3321. ETEXI
  3322. DEF("show-cursor", 0, QEMU_OPTION_show_cursor, \
  3323. "-show-cursor show cursor\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3324. STEXI
  3325. @item -show-cursor
  3326. @findex -show-cursor
  3327. Show cursor.
  3328. ETEXI
  3329. DEF("tb-size", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_tb_size, \
  3330. "-tb-size n set TB size\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3331. STEXI
  3332. @item -tb-size @var{n}
  3333. @findex -tb-size
  3334. Set TB size.
  3335. ETEXI
  3336. DEF("incoming", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_incoming, \
  3337. "-incoming tcp:[host]:port[,to=maxport][,ipv4][,ipv6]\n" \
  3338. "-incoming rdma:host:port[,ipv4][,ipv6]\n" \
  3339. "-incoming unix:socketpath\n" \
  3340. " prepare for incoming migration, listen on\n" \
  3341. " specified protocol and socket address\n" \
  3342. "-incoming fd:fd\n" \
  3343. "-incoming exec:cmdline\n" \
  3344. " accept incoming migration on given file descriptor\n" \
  3345. " or from given external command\n" \
  3346. "-incoming defer\n" \
  3347. " wait for the URI to be specified via migrate_incoming\n",
  3348. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3349. STEXI
  3350. @item -incoming tcp:[@var{host}]:@var{port}[,to=@var{maxport}][,ipv4][,ipv6]
  3351. @itemx -incoming rdma:@var{host}:@var{port}[,ipv4][,ipv6]
  3352. @findex -incoming
  3353. Prepare for incoming migration, listen on a given tcp port.
  3354. @item -incoming unix:@var{socketpath}
  3355. Prepare for incoming migration, listen on a given unix socket.
  3356. @item -incoming fd:@var{fd}
  3357. Accept incoming migration from a given filedescriptor.
  3358. @item -incoming exec:@var{cmdline}
  3359. Accept incoming migration as an output from specified external command.
  3360. @item -incoming defer
  3361. Wait for the URI to be specified via migrate_incoming. The monitor can
  3362. be used to change settings (such as migration parameters) prior to issuing
  3363. the migrate_incoming to allow the migration to begin.
  3364. ETEXI
  3365. DEF("only-migratable", 0, QEMU_OPTION_only_migratable, \
  3366. "-only-migratable allow only migratable devices\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3367. STEXI
  3368. @item -only-migratable
  3369. @findex -only-migratable
  3370. Only allow migratable devices. Devices will not be allowed to enter an
  3371. unmigratable state.
  3372. ETEXI
  3373. DEF("nodefaults", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nodefaults, \
  3374. "-nodefaults don't create default devices\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3375. STEXI
  3376. @item -nodefaults
  3377. @findex -nodefaults
  3378. Don't create default devices. Normally, QEMU sets the default devices like serial
  3379. port, parallel port, virtual console, monitor device, VGA adapter, floppy and
  3380. CD-ROM drive and others. The @code{-nodefaults} option will disable all those
  3381. default devices.
  3382. ETEXI
  3383. #ifndef _WIN32
  3384. DEF("chroot", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_chroot, \
  3385. "-chroot dir chroot to dir just before starting the VM\n",
  3386. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3387. #endif
  3388. STEXI
  3389. @item -chroot @var{dir}
  3390. @findex -chroot
  3391. Immediately before starting guest execution, chroot to the specified
  3392. directory. Especially useful in combination with -runas.
  3393. ETEXI
  3394. #ifndef _WIN32
  3395. DEF("runas", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_runas, \
  3396. "-runas user change to user id user just before starting the VM\n" \
  3397. " user can be numeric uid:gid instead\n",
  3398. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3399. #endif
  3400. STEXI
  3401. @item -runas @var{user}
  3402. @findex -runas
  3403. Immediately before starting guest execution, drop root privileges, switching
  3404. to the specified user.
  3405. ETEXI
  3406. DEF("prom-env", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_prom_env,
  3407. "-prom-env variable=value\n"
  3408. " set OpenBIOS nvram variables\n",
  3410. STEXI
  3411. @item -prom-env @var{variable}=@var{value}
  3412. @findex -prom-env
  3413. Set OpenBIOS nvram @var{variable} to given @var{value} (PPC, SPARC only).
  3414. ETEXI
  3415. DEF("semihosting", 0, QEMU_OPTION_semihosting,
  3416. "-semihosting semihosting mode\n",
  3419. STEXI
  3420. @item -semihosting
  3421. @findex -semihosting
  3422. Enable semihosting mode (ARM, M68K, Xtensa, MIPS, Nios II only).
  3423. ETEXI
  3424. DEF("semihosting-config", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_semihosting_config,
  3425. "-semihosting-config [enable=on|off][,target=native|gdb|auto][,chardev=id][,arg=str[,...]]\n" \
  3426. " semihosting configuration\n",
  3429. STEXI
  3430. @item -semihosting-config [enable=on|off][,target=native|gdb|auto][,chardev=id][,arg=str[,...]]
  3431. @findex -semihosting-config
  3432. Enable and configure semihosting (ARM, M68K, Xtensa, MIPS, Nios II only).
  3433. @table @option
  3434. @item target=@code{native|gdb|auto}
  3435. Defines where the semihosting calls will be addressed, to QEMU (@code{native})
  3436. or to GDB (@code{gdb}). The default is @code{auto}, which means @code{gdb}
  3437. during debug sessions and @code{native} otherwise.
  3438. @item chardev=@var{str1}
  3439. Send the output to a chardev backend output for native or auto output when not in gdb
  3440. @item arg=@var{str1},arg=@var{str2},...
  3441. Allows the user to pass input arguments, and can be used multiple times to build
  3442. up a list. The old-style @code{-kernel}/@code{-append} method of passing a
  3443. command line is still supported for backward compatibility. If both the
  3444. @code{--semihosting-config arg} and the @code{-kernel}/@code{-append} are
  3445. specified, the former is passed to semihosting as it always takes precedence.
  3446. @end table
  3447. ETEXI
  3448. DEF("old-param", 0, QEMU_OPTION_old_param,
  3449. "-old-param old param mode\n", QEMU_ARCH_ARM)
  3450. STEXI
  3451. @item -old-param
  3452. @findex -old-param (ARM)
  3453. Old param mode (ARM only).
  3454. ETEXI
  3455. DEF("sandbox", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_sandbox, \
  3456. "-sandbox on[,obsolete=allow|deny][,elevateprivileges=allow|deny|children]\n" \
  3457. " [,spawn=allow|deny][,resourcecontrol=allow|deny]\n" \
  3458. " Enable seccomp mode 2 system call filter (default 'off').\n" \
  3459. " use 'obsolete' to allow obsolete system calls that are provided\n" \
  3460. " by the kernel, but typically no longer used by modern\n" \
  3461. " C library implementations.\n" \
  3462. " use 'elevateprivileges' to allow or deny QEMU process to elevate\n" \
  3463. " its privileges by blacklisting all set*uid|gid system calls.\n" \
  3464. " The value 'children' will deny set*uid|gid system calls for\n" \
  3465. " main QEMU process but will allow forks and execves to run unprivileged\n" \
  3466. " use 'spawn' to avoid QEMU to spawn new threads or processes by\n" \
  3467. " blacklisting *fork and execve\n" \
  3468. " use 'resourcecontrol' to disable process affinity and schedular priority\n",
  3469. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3470. STEXI
  3471. @item -sandbox @var{arg}[,obsolete=@var{string}][,elevateprivileges=@var{string}][,spawn=@var{string}][,resourcecontrol=@var{string}]
  3472. @findex -sandbox
  3473. Enable Seccomp mode 2 system call filter. 'on' will enable syscall filtering and 'off' will
  3474. disable it. The default is 'off'.
  3475. @table @option
  3476. @item obsolete=@var{string}
  3477. Enable Obsolete system calls
  3478. @item elevateprivileges=@var{string}
  3479. Disable set*uid|gid system calls
  3480. @item spawn=@var{string}
  3481. Disable *fork and execve
  3482. @item resourcecontrol=@var{string}
  3483. Disable process affinity and schedular priority
  3484. @end table
  3485. ETEXI
  3486. DEF("readconfig", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_readconfig,
  3487. "-readconfig <file>\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3488. STEXI
  3489. @item -readconfig @var{file}
  3490. @findex -readconfig
  3491. Read device configuration from @var{file}. This approach is useful when you want to spawn
  3492. QEMU process with many command line options but you don't want to exceed the command line
  3493. character limit.
  3494. ETEXI
  3495. DEF("writeconfig", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_writeconfig,
  3496. "-writeconfig <file>\n"
  3497. " read/write config file\n", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3498. STEXI
  3499. @item -writeconfig @var{file}
  3500. @findex -writeconfig
  3501. Write device configuration to @var{file}. The @var{file} can be either filename to save
  3502. command line and device configuration into file or dash @code{-}) character to print the
  3503. output to stdout. This can be later used as input file for @code{-readconfig} option.
  3504. ETEXI
  3505. DEF("no-user-config", 0, QEMU_OPTION_nouserconfig,
  3506. "-no-user-config\n"
  3507. " do not load default user-provided config files at startup\n",
  3508. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3509. STEXI
  3510. @item -no-user-config
  3511. @findex -no-user-config
  3512. The @code{-no-user-config} option makes QEMU not load any of the user-provided
  3513. config files on @var{sysconfdir}.
  3514. ETEXI
  3515. DEF("trace", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_trace,
  3516. "-trace [[enable=]<pattern>][,events=<file>][,file=<file>]\n"
  3517. " specify tracing options\n",
  3518. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3519. STEXI
  3520. HXCOMM This line is not accurate, as some sub-options are backend-specific but
  3521. HXCOMM HX does not support conditional compilation of text.
  3522. @item -trace [[enable=]@var{pattern}][,events=@var{file}][,file=@var{file}]
  3523. @findex -trace
  3524. @include qemu-option-trace.texi
  3525. ETEXI
  3526. HXCOMM Internal use
  3527. DEF("qtest", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_qtest, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3528. DEF("qtest-log", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_qtest_log, "", QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3529. #ifdef __linux__
  3530. DEF("enable-fips", 0, QEMU_OPTION_enablefips,
  3531. "-enable-fips enable FIPS 140-2 compliance\n",
  3532. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3533. #endif
  3534. STEXI
  3535. @item -enable-fips
  3536. @findex -enable-fips
  3537. Enable FIPS 140-2 compliance mode.
  3538. ETEXI
  3539. HXCOMM Deprecated by -machine accel=tcg property
  3540. DEF("no-kvm", 0, QEMU_OPTION_no_kvm, "", QEMU_ARCH_I386)
  3541. DEF("msg", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_msg,
  3542. "-msg timestamp[=on|off]\n"
  3543. " change the format of messages\n"
  3544. " on|off controls leading timestamps (default:on)\n",
  3545. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3546. STEXI
  3547. @item -msg timestamp[=on|off]
  3548. @findex -msg
  3549. prepend a timestamp to each log message.(default:on)
  3550. ETEXI
  3551. DEF("dump-vmstate", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_dump_vmstate,
  3552. "-dump-vmstate <file>\n"
  3553. " Output vmstate information in JSON format to file.\n"
  3554. " Use the scripts/ file to\n"
  3555. " check for possible regressions in migration code\n"
  3556. " by comparing two such vmstate dumps.\n",
  3557. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3558. STEXI
  3559. @item -dump-vmstate @var{file}
  3560. @findex -dump-vmstate
  3561. Dump json-encoded vmstate information for current machine type to file
  3562. in @var{file}
  3563. ETEXI
  3564. DEF("enable-sync-profile", 0, QEMU_OPTION_enable_sync_profile,
  3565. "-enable-sync-profile\n"
  3566. " enable synchronization profiling\n",
  3567. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3568. STEXI
  3569. @item -enable-sync-profile
  3570. @findex -enable-sync-profile
  3571. Enable synchronization profiling.
  3572. ETEXI
  3573. STEXI
  3574. @end table
  3575. ETEXI
  3576. DEFHEADING()
  3577. DEFHEADING(Generic object creation:)
  3578. STEXI
  3579. @table @option
  3580. ETEXI
  3581. DEF("object", HAS_ARG, QEMU_OPTION_object,
  3582. "-object TYPENAME[,PROP1=VALUE1,...]\n"
  3583. " create a new object of type TYPENAME setting properties\n"
  3584. " in the order they are specified. Note that the 'id'\n"
  3585. " property must be set. These objects are placed in the\n"
  3586. " '/objects' path.\n",
  3587. QEMU_ARCH_ALL)
  3588. STEXI
  3589. @item -object @var{typename}[,@var{prop1}=@var{value1},...]
  3590. @findex -object
  3591. Create a new object of type @var{typename} setting properties
  3592. in the order they are specified. Note that the 'id'
  3593. property must be set. These objects are placed in the
  3594. '/objects' path.
  3595. @table @option
  3596. @item -object memory-backend-file,id=@var{id},size=@var{size},mem-path=@var{dir},share=@var{on|off},discard-data=@var{on|off},merge=@var{on|off},dump=@var{on|off},prealloc=@var{on|off},host-nodes=@var{host-nodes},policy=@var{default|preferred|bind|interleave},align=@var{align}
  3597. Creates a memory file backend object, which can be used to back
  3598. the guest RAM with huge pages.
  3599. The @option{id} parameter is a unique ID that will be used to reference this
  3600. memory region when configuring the @option{-numa} argument.
  3601. The @option{size} option provides the size of the memory region, and accepts
  3602. common suffixes, eg @option{500M}.
  3603. The @option{mem-path} provides the path to either a shared memory or huge page
  3604. filesystem mount.
  3605. The @option{share} boolean option determines whether the memory
  3606. region is marked as private to QEMU, or shared. The latter allows
  3607. a co-operating external process to access the QEMU memory region.
  3608. The @option{share} is also required for pvrdma devices due to
  3609. limitations in the RDMA API provided by Linux.
  3610. Setting share=on might affect the ability to configure NUMA
  3611. bindings for the memory backend under some circumstances, see
  3612. Documentation/vm/numa_memory_policy.txt on the Linux kernel
  3613. source tree for additional details.
  3614. Setting the @option{discard-data} boolean option to @var{on}
  3615. indicates that file contents can be destroyed when QEMU exits,
  3616. to avoid unnecessarily flushing data to the backing file. Note
  3617. that @option{discard-data} is only an optimization, and QEMU
  3618. might not discard file contents if it aborts unexpectedly or is
  3619. terminated using SIGKILL.
  3620. The @option{merge} boolean option enables memory merge, also known as
  3621. MADV_MERGEABLE, so that Kernel Samepage Merging will consider the pages for
  3622. memory deduplication.
  3623. Setting the @option{dump} boolean option to @var{off} excludes the memory from
  3624. core dumps. This feature is also known as MADV_DONTDUMP.
  3625. The @option{prealloc} boolean option enables memory preallocation.
  3626. The @option{host-nodes} option binds the memory range to a list of NUMA host
  3627. nodes.
  3628. The @option{policy} option sets the NUMA policy to one of the following values:
  3629. @table @option
  3630. @item @var{default}
  3631. default host policy
  3632. @item @var{preferred}
  3633. prefer the given host node list for allocation
  3634. @item @var{bind}
  3635. restrict memory allocation to the given host node list
  3636. @item @var{interleave}
  3637. interleave memory allocations across the given host node list
  3638. @end table
  3639. The @option{align} option specifies the base address alignment when
  3640. QEMU mmap(2) @option{mem-path}, and accepts common suffixes, eg
  3641. @option{2M}. Some backend store specified by @option{mem-path}
  3642. requires an alignment different than the default one used by QEMU, eg
  3643. the device DAX /dev/dax0.0 requires 2M alignment rather than 4K. In
  3644. such cases, users can specify the required alignment via this option.
  3645. The @option{pmem} option specifies whether the backing file specified
  3646. by @option{mem-path} is in host persistent memory that can be accessed
  3647. using the SNIA NVM programming model (e.g. Intel NVDIMM).
  3648. If @option{pmem} is set to 'on', QEMU will take necessary operations to
  3649. guarantee the persistence of its own writes to @option{mem-path}
  3650. (e.g. in vNVDIMM label emulation and live migration).
  3651. Also, we will map the backend-file with MAP_SYNC flag, which ensures the
  3652. file metadata is in sync for @option{mem-path} in case of host crash
  3653. or a power failure. MAP_SYNC requires support from both the host kernel
  3654. (since Linux kernel 4.15) and the filesystem of @option{mem-path} mounted
  3655. with DAX option.
  3656. @item -object memory-backend-ram,id=@var{id},merge=@var{on|off},dump=@var{on|off},share=@var{on|off},prealloc=@var{on|off},size=@var{size},host-nodes=@var{host-nodes},policy=@var{default|preferred|bind|interleave}
  3657. Creates a memory backend object, which can be used to back the guest RAM.
  3658. Memory backend objects offer more control than the @option{-m} option that is
  3659. traditionally used to define guest RAM. Please refer to
  3660. @option{memory-backend-file} for a description of the options.
  3661. @item -object memory-backend-memfd,id=@var{id},merge=@var{on|off},dump=@var{on|off},share=@var{on|off},prealloc=@var{on|off},size=@var{size},host-nodes=@var{host-nodes},policy=@var{default|preferred|bind|interleave},seal=@var{on|off},hugetlb=@var{on|off},hugetlbsize=@var{size}
  3662. Creates an anonymous memory file backend object, which allows QEMU to
  3663. share the memory with an external process (e.g. when using
  3664. vhost-user). The memory is allocated with memfd and optional
  3665. sealing. (Linux only)
  3666. The @option{seal} option creates a sealed-file, that will block
  3667. further resizing the memory ('on' by default).
  3668. The @option{hugetlb} option specify the file to be created resides in
  3669. the hugetlbfs filesystem (since Linux 4.14). Used in conjunction with
  3670. the @option{hugetlb} option, the @option{hugetlbsize} option specify
  3671. the hugetlb page size on systems that support multiple hugetlb page
  3672. sizes (it must be a power of 2 value supported by the system).
  3673. In some versions of Linux, the @option{hugetlb} option is incompatible
  3674. with the @option{seal} option (requires at least Linux 4.16).
  3675. Please refer to @option{memory-backend-file} for a description of the
  3676. other options.
  3677. The @option{share} boolean option is @var{on} by default with memfd.
  3678. @item -object rng-random,id=@var{id},filename=@var{/dev/random}
  3679. Creates a random number generator backend which obtains entropy from
  3680. a device on the host. The @option{id} parameter is a unique ID that
  3681. will be used to reference this entropy backend from the @option{virtio-rng}
  3682. device. The @option{filename} parameter specifies which file to obtain
  3683. entropy from and if omitted defaults to @option{/dev/random}.
  3684. @item -object rng-egd,id=@var{id},chardev=@var{chardevid}
  3685. Creates a random number generator backend which obtains entropy from
  3686. an external daemon running on the host. The @option{id} parameter is
  3687. a unique ID that will be used to reference this entropy backend from
  3688. the @option{virtio-rng} device. The @option{chardev} parameter is
  3689. the unique ID of a character device backend that provides the connection
  3690. to the RNG daemon.
  3691. @item -object tls-creds-anon,id=@var{id},endpoint=@var{endpoint},dir=@var{/path/to/cred/dir},verify-peer=@var{on|off}
  3692. Creates a TLS anonymous credentials object, which can be used to provide
  3693. TLS support on network backends. The @option{id} parameter is a unique
  3694. ID which network backends will use to access the credentials. The
  3695. @option{endpoint} is either @option{server} or @option{client} depending
  3696. on whether the QEMU network backend that uses the credentials will be
  3697. acting as a client or as a server. If @option{verify-peer} is enabled
  3698. (the default) then once the handshake is completed, the peer credentials
  3699. will be verified, though this is a no-op for anonymous credentials.
  3700. The @var{dir} parameter tells QEMU where to find the credential
  3701. files. For server endpoints, this directory may contain a file
  3702. @var{dh-params.pem} providing diffie-hellman parameters to use
  3703. for the TLS server. If the file is missing, QEMU will generate
  3704. a set of DH parameters at startup. This is a computationally
  3705. expensive operation that consumes random pool entropy, so it is
  3706. recommended that a persistent set of parameters be generated
  3707. upfront and saved.
  3708. @item -object tls-creds-psk,id=@var{id},endpoint=@var{endpoint},dir=@var{/path/to/keys/dir}[,username=@var{username}]
  3709. Creates a TLS Pre-Shared Keys (PSK) credentials object, which can be used to provide
  3710. TLS support on network backends. The @option{id} parameter is a unique
  3711. ID which network backends will use to access the credentials. The
  3712. @option{endpoint} is either @option{server} or @option{client} depending
  3713. on whether the QEMU network backend that uses the credentials will be
  3714. acting as a client or as a server. For clients only, @option{username}
  3715. is the username which will be sent to the server. If omitted
  3716. it defaults to ``qemu''.
  3717. The @var{dir} parameter tells QEMU where to find the keys file.
  3718. It is called ``@var{dir}/keys.psk'' and contains ``username:key''
  3719. pairs. This file can most easily be created using the GnuTLS
  3720. @code{psktool} program.
  3721. For server endpoints, @var{dir} may also contain a file
  3722. @var{dh-params.pem} providing diffie-hellman parameters to use
  3723. for the TLS server. If the file is missing, QEMU will generate
  3724. a set of DH parameters at startup. This is a computationally
  3725. expensive operation that consumes random pool entropy, so it is
  3726. recommended that a persistent set of parameters be generated
  3727. up front and saved.
  3728. @item -object tls-creds-x509,id=@var{id},endpoint=@var{endpoint},dir=@var{/path/to/cred/dir},priority=@var{priority},verify-peer=@var{on|off},passwordid=@var{id}
  3729. Creates a TLS anonymous credentials object, which can be used to provide
  3730. TLS support on network backends. The @option{id} parameter is a unique
  3731. ID which network backends will use to access the credentials. The
  3732. @option{endpoint} is either @option{server} or @option{client} depending
  3733. on whether the QEMU network backend that uses the credentials will be
  3734. acting as a client or as a server. If @option{verify-peer} is enabled
  3735. (the default) then once the handshake is completed, the peer credentials
  3736. will be verified. With x509 certificates, this implies that the clients
  3737. must be provided with valid client certificates too.
  3738. The @var{dir} parameter tells QEMU where to find the credential
  3739. files. For server endpoints, this directory may contain a file
  3740. @var{dh-params.pem} providing diffie-hellman parameters to use
  3741. for the TLS server. If the file is missing, QEMU will generate
  3742. a set of DH parameters at startup. This is a computationally
  3743. expensive operation that consumes random pool entropy, so it is
  3744. recommended that a persistent set of parameters be generated
  3745. upfront and saved.
  3746. For x509 certificate credentials the directory will contain further files
  3747. providing the x509 certificates. The certificates must be stored
  3748. in PEM format, in filenames @var{ca-cert.pem}, @var{ca-crl.pem} (optional),
  3749. @var{server-cert.pem} (only servers), @var{server-key.pem} (only servers),
  3750. @var{client-cert.pem} (only clients), and @var{client-key.pem} (only clients).
  3751. For the @var{server-key.pem} and @var{client-key.pem} files which
  3752. contain sensitive private keys, it is possible to use an encrypted
  3753. version by providing the @var{passwordid} parameter. This provides
  3754. the ID of a previously created @code{secret} object containing the
  3755. password for decryption.
  3756. The @var{priority} parameter allows to override the global default
  3757. priority used by gnutls. This can be useful if the system administrator
  3758. needs to use a weaker set of crypto priorities for QEMU without
  3759. potentially forcing the weakness onto all applications. Or conversely
  3760. if one wants wants a stronger default for QEMU than for all other
  3761. applications, they can do this through this parameter. Its format is
  3762. a gnutls priority string as described at
  3763. @url{}.
  3764. @item -object filter-buffer,id=@var{id},netdev=@var{netdevid},interval=@var{t}[,queue=@var{all|rx|tx}][,status=@var{on|off}]
  3765. Interval @var{t} can't be 0, this filter batches the packet delivery: all
  3766. packets arriving in a given interval on netdev @var{netdevid} are delayed
  3767. until the end of the interval. Interval is in microseconds.
  3768. @option{status} is optional that indicate whether the netfilter is
  3769. on (enabled) or off (disabled), the default status for netfilter will be 'on'.
  3770. queue @var{all|rx|tx} is an option that can be applied to any netfilter.
  3771. @option{all}: the filter is attached both to the receive and the transmit
  3772. queue of the netdev (default).
  3773. @option{rx}: the filter is attached to the receive queue of the netdev,
  3774. where it will receive packets sent to the netdev.
  3775. @option{tx}: the filter is attached to the transmit queue of the netdev,
  3776. where it will receive packets sent by the netdev.
  3777. @item -object filter-mirror,id=@var{id},netdev=@var{netdevid},outdev=@var{chardevid},queue=@var{all|rx|tx}[,vnet_hdr_support]
  3778. filter-mirror on netdev @var{netdevid},mirror net packet to chardev@var{chardevid}, if it has the vnet_hdr_support flag, filter-mirror will mirror packet with vnet_hdr_len.
  3779. @item -object filter-redirector,id=@var{id},netdev=@var{netdevid},indev=@var{chardevid},outdev=@var{chardevid},queue=@var{all|rx|tx}[,vnet_hdr_support]
  3780. filter-redirector on netdev @var{netdevid},redirect filter's net packet to chardev
  3781. @var{chardevid},and redirect indev's packet to filter.if it has the vnet_hdr_support flag,
  3782. filter-redirector will redirect packet with vnet_hdr_len.
  3783. Create a filter-redirector we need to differ outdev id from indev id, id can not
  3784. be the same. we can just use indev or outdev, but at least one of indev or outdev
  3785. need to be specified.
  3786. @item -object filter-rewriter,id=@var{id},netdev=@var{netdevid},queue=@var{all|rx|tx},[vnet_hdr_support]
  3787. Filter-rewriter is a part of COLO project.It will rewrite tcp packet to
  3788. secondary from primary to keep secondary tcp connection,and rewrite
  3789. tcp packet to primary from secondary make tcp packet can be handled by
  3790. client.if it has the vnet_hdr_support flag, we can parse packet with vnet header.
  3791. usage:
  3792. colo secondary:
  3793. -object filter-redirector,id=f1,netdev=hn0,queue=tx,indev=red0
  3794. -object filter-redirector,id=f2,netdev=hn0,queue=rx,outdev=red1
  3795. -object filter-rewriter,id=rew0,netdev=hn0,queue=all
  3796. @item -object filter-dump,id=@var{id},netdev=@var{dev}[,file=@var{filename}][,maxlen=@var{len}]
  3797. Dump the network traffic on netdev @var{dev} to the file specified by
  3798. @var{filename}. At most @var{len} bytes (64k by default) per packet are stored.
  3799. The file format is libpcap, so it can be analyzed with tools such as tcpdump
  3800. or Wireshark.
  3801. @item -object colo-compare,id=@var{id},primary_in=@var{chardevid},secondary_in=@var{chardevid},outdev=@var{chardevid},iothread=@var{id}[,vnet_hdr_support]
  3802. Colo-compare gets packet from primary_in@var{chardevid} and secondary_in@var{chardevid}, than compare primary packet with
  3803. secondary packet. If the packets are same, we will output primary
  3804. packet to outdev@var{chardevid}, else we will notify colo-frame
  3805. do checkpoint and send primary packet to outdev@var{chardevid}.
  3806. In order to improve efficiency, we need to put the task of comparison
  3807. in another thread. If it has the vnet_hdr_support flag, colo compare
  3808. will send/recv packet with vnet_hdr_len.
  3809. we must use it with the help of filter-mirror and filter-redirector.
  3810. @example
  3811. primary:
  3812. -netdev tap,id=hn0,vhost=off,script=/etc/qemu-ifup,downscript=/etc/qemu-ifdown
  3813. -device e1000,id=e0,netdev=hn0,mac=52:a4:00:12:78:66
  3814. -chardev socket,id=mirror0,host=,port=9003,server,nowait
  3815. -chardev socket,id=compare1,host=,port=9004,server,nowait
  3816. -chardev socket,id=compare0,host=,port=9001,server,nowait
  3817. -chardev socket,id=compare0-0,host=,port=9001
  3818. -chardev socket,id=compare_out,host=,port=9005,server,nowait
  3819. -chardev socket,id=compare_out0,host=,port=9005
  3820. -object iothread,id=iothread1
  3821. -object filter-mirror,id=m0,netdev=hn0,queue=tx,outdev=mirror0
  3822. -object filter-redirector,netdev=hn0,id=redire0,queue=rx,indev=compare_out
  3823. -object filter-redirector,netdev=hn0,id=redire1,queue=rx,outdev=compare0
  3824. -object colo-compare,id=comp0,primary_in=compare0-0,secondary_in=compare1,outdev=compare_out0,iothread=iothread1
  3825. secondary:
  3826. -netdev tap,id=hn0,vhost=off,script=/etc/qemu-ifup,down script=/etc/qemu-ifdown
  3827. -device e1000,netdev=hn0,mac=52:a4:00:12:78:66
  3828. -chardev socket,id=red0,host=,port=9003
  3829. -chardev socket,id=red1,host=,port=9004
  3830. -object filter-redirector,id=f1,netdev=hn0,queue=tx,indev=red0
  3831. -object filter-redirector,id=f2,netdev=hn0,queue=rx,outdev=red1
  3832. @end example
  3833. If you want to know the detail of above command line, you can read
  3834. the colo-compare git log.
  3835. @item -object cryptodev-backend-builtin,id=@var{id}[,queues=@var{queues}]
  3836. Creates a cryptodev backend which executes crypto opreation from
  3837. the QEMU cipher APIS. The @var{id} parameter is
  3838. a unique ID that will be used to reference this cryptodev backend from
  3839. the @option{virtio-crypto} device. The @var{queues} parameter is optional,
  3840. which specify the queue number of cryptodev backend, the default of
  3841. @var{queues} is 1.
  3842. @example
  3843. # qemu-system-x86_64 \
  3844. [...] \
  3845. -object cryptodev-backend-builtin,id=cryptodev0 \
  3846. -device virtio-crypto-pci,id=crypto0,cryptodev=cryptodev0 \
  3847. [...]
  3848. @end example
  3849. @item -object cryptodev-vhost-user,id=@var{id},chardev=@var{chardevid}[,queues=@var{queues}]
  3850. Creates a vhost-user cryptodev backend, backed by a chardev @var{chardevid}.
  3851. The @var{id} parameter is a unique ID that will be used to reference this
  3852. cryptodev backend from the @option{virtio-crypto} device.
  3853. The chardev should be a unix domain socket backed one. The vhost-user uses
  3854. a specifically defined protocol to pass vhost ioctl replacement messages
  3855. to an application on the other end of the socket.
  3856. The @var{queues} parameter is optional, which specify the queue number
  3857. of cryptodev backend for multiqueue vhost-user, the default of @var{queues} is 1.
  3858. @example
  3859. # qemu-system-x86_64 \
  3860. [...] \
  3861. -chardev socket,id=chardev0,path=/path/to/socket \
  3862. -object cryptodev-vhost-user,id=cryptodev0,chardev=chardev0 \
  3863. -device virtio-crypto-pci,id=crypto0,cryptodev=cryptodev0 \
  3864. [...]
  3865. @end example
  3866. @item -object secret,id=@var{id},data=@var{string},format=@var{raw|base64}[,keyid=@var{secretid},iv=@var{string}]
  3867. @item -object secret,id=@var{id},file=@var{filename},format=@var{raw|base64}[,keyid=@var{secretid},iv=@var{string}]
  3868. Defines a secret to store a password, encryption key, or some other sensitive
  3869. data. The sensitive data can either be passed directly via the @var{data}
  3870. parameter, or indirectly via the @var{file} parameter. Using the @var{data}
  3871. parameter is insecure unless the sensitive data is encrypted.
  3872. The sensitive data can be provided in raw format (the default), or base64.
  3873. When encoded as JSON, the raw format only supports valid UTF-8 characters,
  3874. so base64 is recommended for sending binary data. QEMU will convert from
  3875. which ever format is provided to the format it needs internally. eg, an
  3876. RBD password can be provided in raw format, even though it will be base64
  3877. encoded when passed onto the RBD sever.
  3878. For added protection, it is possible to encrypt the data associated with
  3879. a secret using the AES-256-CBC cipher. Use of encryption is indicated
  3880. by providing the @var{keyid} and @var{iv} parameters. The @var{keyid}
  3881. parameter provides the ID of a previously defined secret that contains
  3882. the AES-256 decryption key. This key should be 32-bytes long and be
  3883. base64 encoded. The @var{iv} parameter provides the random initialization
  3884. vector used for encryption of this particular secret and should be a
  3885. base64 encrypted string of the 16-byte IV.
  3886. The simplest (insecure) usage is to provide the secret inline
  3887. @example
  3888. # $QEMU -object secret,id=sec0,data=letmein,format=raw
  3889. @end example
  3890. The simplest secure usage is to provide the secret via a file
  3891. # printf "letmein" > mypasswd.txt
  3892. # $QEMU -object secret,id=sec0,file=mypasswd.txt,format=raw
  3893. For greater security, AES-256-CBC should be used. To illustrate usage,
  3894. consider the openssl command line tool which can encrypt the data. Note
  3895. that when encrypting, the plaintext must be padded to the cipher block
  3896. size (32 bytes) using the standard PKCS#5/6 compatible padding algorithm.
  3897. First a master key needs to be created in base64 encoding:
  3898. @example
  3899. # openssl rand -base64 32 > key.b64
  3900. # KEY=$(base64 -d key.b64 | hexdump -v -e '/1 "%02X"')
  3901. @end example
  3902. Each secret to be encrypted needs to have a random initialization vector
  3903. generated. These do not need to be kept secret
  3904. @example
  3905. # openssl rand -base64 16 > iv.b64
  3906. # IV=$(base64 -d iv.b64 | hexdump -v -e '/1 "%02X"')
  3907. @end example
  3908. The secret to be defined can now be encrypted, in this case we're
  3909. telling openssl to base64 encode the result, but it could be left
  3910. as raw bytes if desired.
  3911. @example
  3912. # SECRET=$(printf "letmein" |
  3913. openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -a -K $KEY -iv $IV)
  3914. @end example
  3915. When launching QEMU, create a master secret pointing to @code{key.b64}
  3916. and specify that to be used to decrypt the user password. Pass the
  3917. contents of @code{iv.b64} to the second secret
  3918. @example
  3919. # $QEMU \
  3920. -object secret,id=secmaster0,format=base64,file=key.b64 \
  3921. -object secret,id=sec0,keyid=secmaster0,format=base64,\
  3922. data=$SECRET,iv=$(<iv.b64)
  3923. @end example
  3924. @item -object sev-guest,id=@var{id},cbitpos=@var{cbitpos},reduced-phys-bits=@var{val},[sev-device=@var{string},policy=@var{policy},handle=@var{handle},dh-cert-file=@var{file},session-file=@var{file}]
  3925. Create a Secure Encrypted Virtualization (SEV) guest object, which can be used
  3926. to provide the guest memory encryption support on AMD processors.
  3927. When memory encryption is enabled, one of the physical address bit (aka the
  3928. C-bit) is utilized to mark if a memory page is protected. The @option{cbitpos}
  3929. is used to provide the C-bit position. The C-bit position is Host family dependent
  3930. hence user must provide this value. On EPYC, the value should be 47.
  3931. When memory encryption is enabled, we loose certain bits in physical address space.
  3932. The @option{reduced-phys-bits} is used to provide the number of bits we loose in
  3933. physical address space. Similar to C-bit, the value is Host family dependent.
  3934. On EPYC, the value should be 5.
  3935. The @option{sev-device} provides the device file to use for communicating with
  3936. the SEV firmware running inside AMD Secure Processor. The default device is
  3937. '/dev/sev'. If hardware supports memory encryption then /dev/sev devices are
  3938. created by CCP driver.
  3939. The @option{policy} provides the guest policy to be enforced by the SEV firmware
  3940. and restrict what configuration and operational commands can be performed on this
  3941. guest by the hypervisor. The policy should be provided by the guest owner and is
  3942. bound to the guest and cannot be changed throughout the lifetime of the guest.
  3943. The default is 0.
  3944. If guest @option{policy} allows sharing the key with another SEV guest then
  3945. @option{handle} can be use to provide handle of the guest from which to share
  3946. the key.
  3947. The @option{dh-cert-file} and @option{session-file} provides the guest owner's
  3948. Public Diffie-Hillman key defined in SEV spec. The PDH and session parameters
  3949. are used for establishing a cryptographic session with the guest owner to
  3950. negotiate keys used for attestation. The file must be encoded in base64.
  3951. e.g to launch a SEV guest
  3952. @example
  3953. # $QEMU \
  3954. ......
  3955. -object sev-guest,id=sev0,cbitpos=47,reduced-phys-bits=5 \
  3956. -machine ...,memory-encryption=sev0
  3957. .....
  3958. @end example
  3959. @item -object authz-simple,id=@var{id},identity=@var{string}
  3960. Create an authorization object that will control access to network services.
  3961. The @option{identity} parameter is identifies the user and its format
  3962. depends on the network service that authorization object is associated
  3963. with. For authorizing based on TLS x509 certificates, the identity must
  3964. be the x509 distinguished name. Note that care must be taken to escape
  3965. any commas in the distinguished name.
  3966. An example authorization object to validate a x509 distinguished name
  3967. would look like:
  3968. @example
  3969. # $QEMU \
  3970. ...
  3971. -object 'authz-simple,id=auth0,,,O=Example Org,,L=London,,ST=London,,C=GB' \
  3972. ...
  3973. @end example
  3974. Note the use of quotes due to the x509 distinguished name containing
  3975. whitespace, and escaping of ','.
  3976. @item -object authz-listfile,id=@var{id},filename=@var{path},refresh=@var{yes|no}
  3977. Create an authorization object that will control access to network services.
  3978. The @option{filename} parameter is the fully qualified path to a file
  3979. containing the access control list rules in JSON format.
  3980. An example set of rules that match against SASL usernames might look
  3981. like:
  3982. @example
  3983. @{
  3984. "rules": [
  3985. @{ "match": "fred", "policy": "allow", "format": "exact" @},
  3986. @{ "match": "bob", "policy": "allow", "format": "exact" @},
  3987. @{ "match": "danb", "policy": "deny", "format": "glob" @},
  3988. @{ "match": "dan*", "policy": "allow", "format": "exact" @},
  3989. ],
  3990. "policy": "deny"
  3991. @}
  3992. @end example
  3993. When checking access the object will iterate over all the rules and
  3994. the first rule to match will have its @option{policy} value returned
  3995. as the result. If no rules match, then the default @option{policy}
  3996. value is returned.
  3997. The rules can either be an exact string match, or they can use the
  3998. simple UNIX glob pattern matching to allow wildcards to be used.
  3999. If @option{refresh} is set to true the file will be monitored
  4000. and automatically reloaded whenever its content changes.
  4001. As with the @code{authz-simple} object, the format of the identity
  4002. strings being matched depends on the network service, but is usually
  4003. a TLS x509 distinguished name, or a SASL username.
  4004. An example authorization object to validate a SASL username
  4005. would look like:
  4006. @example
  4007. # $QEMU \
  4008. ...
  4009. -object authz-simple,id=auth0,filename=/etc/qemu/vnc-sasl.acl,refresh=yes
  4010. ...
  4011. @end example
  4012. @item -object authz-pam,id=@var{id},service=@var{string}
  4013. Create an authorization object that will control access to network services.
  4014. The @option{service} parameter provides the name of a PAM service to use
  4015. for authorization. It requires that a file @code{/etc/pam.d/@var{service}}
  4016. exist to provide the configuration for the @code{account} subsystem.
  4017. An example authorization object to validate a TLS x509 distinguished
  4018. name would look like:
  4019. @example
  4020. # $QEMU \
  4021. ...
  4022. -object authz-pam,id=auth0,service=qemu-vnc
  4023. ...
  4024. @end example
  4025. There would then be a corresponding config file for PAM at
  4026. @code{/etc/pam.d/qemu-vnc} that contains:
  4027. @example
  4028. account requisite item=user sense=allow \
  4029. file=/etc/qemu/vnc.allow
  4030. @end example
  4031. Finally the @code{/etc/qemu/vnc.allow} file would contain
  4032. the list of x509 distingished names that are permitted
  4033. access
  4034. @example
  4035.,O=Example Home,L=London,ST=London,C=GB
  4036. @end example
  4037. @end table
  4038. ETEXI
  4039. HXCOMM This is the last statement. Insert new options before this line!
  4040. STEXI
  4041. @end table
  4042. ETEXI